Additional Published Outputs


Our priority has been to collate the evidence and to produce What Works in Conservation and our synopses, rather than to write papers. However, listed below are scientific publications (journal articles, reports, etc) and popular articles that we have produced using the information collated or as part of the Conservation Evidence project. We have also produced guidance using the information collated, which is also listed below.

At the bottom of the lists are a selection of articles which cite our work, or which have been written about Conservation Evidence by other people/organisations.

Scientific publications


Crowther, L.P., Luke, S.H., Arellano, E.C., McCormack, C.G., Ferreira, V., Hillier, J., Heathcote, R., Kloen, H., Muñoz-Sáez, A., Oliveira-Rebouças, P., Oliveira da Silva, F., Rojas-Arévalo, N., Zielonka, N. & Dicks, L.V. (2024) The Cool Farm Biodiversity metric: An evidence-based online tool to report and improve management of biodiversity at farm scale. Ecological Indicators 161: 111897.

White, T.B., Serratosa, J., Allinson, T., Jones, V.R., Petrovan, S.O., Jobson, B.R., Jones, K.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2024). Assessing costs and cost-effectiveness across the mitigation hierarchy: An example considering the reduction of bird mortality at power lines. Biological Conservation, 296: 110651.

Willer, D.F., Christie, A.P., Khripko, D., Petrovan, S.O., Sutherland, W.J., Short, S.W. & Aldridge, D.C. (2024) Fast tracking tool selection for sustainability decisions. Global Sustainability 7: e24.


Häkkinen, H., Taylor, N.G., Pettorelli, N., Sutherland, W.J., Aldará, J., Anker-Nilssen, T., Aulert, C., van Bemmelen, R.S.A., Burnell, D., Cadiou, B., Campioni, L., Clark, B.L., Dehnhard, N., Dias, M.P., Enners, L., Furness, R.W., Hallgrímsson, G.Þ., Hammer, S., Hansen, E.S., Hario, M., Hurling, S., Jessopp, M., Kleinschmidt, B., Leivits, M., Maniszewska, K., Oppel, S., Payo-Payo, A., Piec, D., Ramos, J.A., Robin, F., Sørensen, I.H., Stīpniece, A., Thompson, D.L., Vulcano, A. & Petrovan, S. (2023) Co-developing guidance for conservation: An example for seabirds in the North-East Atlantic in the face of climate change impacts. Conservation Science and Practice 5(8): e12985.

Hood, A.S.C., Shackelford, G.E., Christie, A.P., Usieta, H.O., Martin, P.A., & Sutherland, W.J. (2023) A systematic map of cassava farming practices and their agricultural and environmental impacts using new ontologies: Agri-ontologies 1.0. Ecological Solutions and Evidence 4: Article 2.

Martin, P., Christie, A.P., Shackelford, G.E., Hood, A.S.C., Wang, S., Li, B., Morgan, W., Lee, M., Aldridge, D.C. & Sutherland, W.J. (2023) Flexible synthesis can deliver more tailored and timely evidence for research and policy. PNAS 120(26): e2221911120.

Miller, J., White, T. & Christie, A.P. (2023) Parachute conservation: Investigating trends in international research. Conservation Letters e12947. Early view online.

Smith, R.K., Morgan, W.H., Al-Fulaij, N., Amano, T., Bowkett, A.E., Christie, A., Downey, H., Frick, W.F., O'Brien, D., Ockendon, N., Oppel, S., Petrovan, S.O., Righton, D., Tinsley-Marshall, P., Worthington, T.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2023) Co-designing a toolkit for evidence-based decision making in conservation: Processes and lessons. Ecological Solutions and Evidence 4(3): e12269.

Smith, R., Ockendon, N. & Sutherland, W. (2023). Conservation practitioners frequently do test the effectiveness of their actions, but this needs to become routine. Science, e-letter Oct. 13, 2023. [Response to Ferraro, P.J. et al. 2023, Create a culture of experiments in environmental programs, Science  381(6659): 735–737,]

Tyler, C., Akerlof, K.L., Allegra, A., Arnold, Z., Canino, H., Doornenbal, M.A., Goldstein, J.A., Budtz Pedersen, D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2023)  AI tools as science policy advisers? The potential and the pitfalls. Nature 622: 27–30.

Wang, S., Martin, P.A., Hao, Y., Sutherland, W.J., Shackelford, G.E., Wu, J., Ju, R., Zhou, W. & Li, B. (2023) A global synthesis of the effectiveness and ecological impacts of management interventions for Spartina species. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering  17: Article number 141.

White, T.B., Mukherjee, N., Petrovan, S.O. & Sutherland, W.J. (2023) Identifying opportunities to deliver effective and efficent outcomes from business-biodiversity action. Environmental Science and Policy 140: 221–231.

White T.B., Petrovan S.O., Bennun L.A., Butterworth T., Christie A.P., Downey H., Hunter S.B., Jobson B., zu Ermgassen, S.O.S.E. & Sutherland, W.J. (2023). Principles for using evidence to improve biodiversity impact mitigation by business. Business Strategy and the Environment, 32(7): 4719–4733.


Bárcenas-García, A., Michalski, F., Morgan, W.H., Smith, R.K., Sutherland, W.J., Gibbs, J.P. & Norris, D. (2022) Impacts of dams on freshwater turtles: A global review to identify conservation solutions. Tropical Conservation Science 15: 1–21.

Bowgen, K.M., Kettel, E.F., Butchart, S.H.M., Carr, J.A., Foden, W.B., Magin, G., Morecroft, M.D., Smith, R.K., Stein, B.A., Sutherland, W.J., Thaxter, C.B. & Pearce-Higgins, J.W (2022) Conservation interventions can benefit species impacted by climate change. Biological Conservation 269: 109524.

Christie, A.C., Downey, H., Frick, W.F., Grainger, M., O’Brien, D., Tinsley-Marshall, P., White, T.B., Winter, M. & Sutherland, W.J. (2022) A practical conservation tool to combine diverse types of evidence for transparent evidence-based decision-making. Conservation Science and Practice 4(1): e579.

Downey, H., Bretagnolle, V., Brick, C., Bulman, C.R., Cooke, S.J., Dean, M., Edmonds, B., Frick, W.F., Friedman, K., McNicol, C., Nichols, C., Herbert, S., O’Brien, D., Ockendon, N., Petrovan, S., Stroud, D., White, T.B., Worthington, T.A. and Sutherland , W.J. (2022) Principles for the production of evidence-based guidance for conservation actions. Conservation Science and Practice 4(5): e12663.

Ednie, G., Kapoor, T., Koppel, O., Piczak, M.L., Reid, J.L., Murdoch, A.D., Cook, C.N., Sutherland, W.J. and Cooke, S.J. (2022) Foresight science in conservation: Tools, barriers, and mainstreaming opportunities. Ambio 52: 411–424.

Gallardo, B., Sutherland, W.J., Martin, P. and Aldridge, D.C. (2022), Applying Fault Tree Analysis to biological invasions identifies optimal targets for effective biosecurity. Journal of Applied Ecology 59(10): 2553–2566.

Hakkinen, H., Petrovan, S.O., Sutherland, W.J., Dias, M.P., Ameca, E.I., Oppel, S., Ramírez, I., Lawson, B., Lehikoinen, A., Bowgen, K.M., Taylor, N.G., Pettorelli, N. (2022) Linking climate change vulnerability research and evidence on conservation action effectiveness to safeguard European seabird populations. Journal of Applied Ecology 59(5): 1178–1186.

Hobson, T., Sundaram, L., Aldridge, D., Christie, A., Edwards, B., Dando, M., Petrovan, S., Shang, L., Sutherland, W., Ó hÉigeartaigh, S. and Smith, R. (2022) Submission of Evidence to The Cabinet Office Enquiry on The Biological Security. March 2022.

Parks, D., Al-Fulaij, N., Brook, C., Butchart, S.H.M., Collomb, J.-G., Cope, D., Dowell, S., Falkingham, B., Frick, W.F., Gibbs, D., Gray, E.E., Heard, N., Leventis, A.(T.), Mastro, K., Meredith, H., Mickleburgh, S., Miller, F., Muir, M., Nuijten, R.J.M., Ockendon, N., Owen, N.R., Owens, J.R., Rodríguez, J.P., Tully, E., Vié, J.-C. (2022) Funding evidence-based conservation. Conservation Biology 36(6): e13991.

Sutherland, W.J. (Editor) (2022) Transforming Conservation: A Practical Guide to Evidence and Decision Making. Open Book Publishers: Cambridge, UK.

Sutherland, W.J., Robinson, J.M., Aldridge, D.C., Alamenciak, T., Armes, M., Baranduin, N., Bladon, A.J., Breed, M.F., Dyas, N., Elphick, C.S., Griffiths, R.A., Hughes, J., Middleton, B., Littlewood, N.A., Mitchell, R., Morgan, W.H., Mosley, R., Petrovan, S.O., Prendergast, K., Ritchie, E.G., Raven, H., Smith, R.K., Watts, S.H. & Thornton A. (2022) Creating testable questions in practical conservation: A process and 100 questions. Conservation Evidence 19: 1–7.

Tinsley-Marshall, P., Downey, H., Adum, G., Al-Fulaij, N., Bourn, N.A.D., Brotherton, P.N.M., Frick, W.F., Hancock, m.H., Hellon, J., Hudson, M.A., Kortland, K., Mastro, K., McNicol, K.M., McPherson, T., Mickleburgh, S., Moss, J.F., Nichols, C.P., O’Brien, D., Ockendon, N., Paterson, S., Parks, D., Pimm, S.L., Schofield, H., Simkins, A.T., Watuwa, J., Wormald, K., Wilkinson, J., Wilson, J.D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2022) Funding and delivering the routine testing of management interventions to improve conservation effectiveness. Journal for Nature Conservation 67: June 2022, Article 126184.

White, T., Petrovan, S., Booth, H., Correa, R.J., Gatt, Y., Martin, P.A., Newall, H., Worthington, T. & Sutherland, W.J. (2022) Determining the economic costs and benefits of conservation actions: A decision support framework. Conservation Science and Practice 4(12): e12840.

White, T., Petrovan, S., Christie, A., Martin, P., & Sutherland, W. (2022) What is the price of conservation; a review of the status quo and recommendations for improving cost reporting. Bioscience 72(5): 461–471.


Amano, T., Berdejo-Espinola, V., Christie, A. P., Willott, K., Akasaka, M., Báldi, A., Berthinussen, A., Bertolino, S., Bladon, A. J., Chen, M., Choi, C.-Y., Bou Dagher Kharrat, M., de Oliveira, L. G., Farhat, P., Golivets, M., Hidalgo Aranzamendi, N., Jantke, K., Kajzer-Bonk, J., Kemahlı Aytekin, M. Ç., Khorozyan, I., Kito, K., Konno, K., Lin, D.-L., Littlewood, N., Liu, Y., Liu, Y., Loretto, M.-C., Marconi, V., Martin, P. A., Morgan, W. H., Narváez-Gómez, J. P., Negret, P. J., Nourani, E., Ochoa Quintero, J. M., Ockendon, N., Oh, R. R. Y., Petrovan, S. O., Piovezan-Borges, A. C., Pollet, I. L., Ramos, D. L., Reboredo Segovia, A. L., Rivera-Villanueva, A. N., Rocha, R., Rouyer, M.-M., Sainsbury, K. A., Schuster, R., Schwab, D., Şekercioğlu, Ç. H., Seo, H.-M., Shackelford, G., Shinoda, Y., Smith, R. K., Tao, S.-d., Tsai, M.-s., Tyler, E. H. M., Vajna, F., Valdebenito, J. O., Vozykova, S., Waryszak, P., Zamora-Gutierrez, V., Zenni, R. D., Zhou, W., and Sutherland, W. J. (2021) Tapping into non-English-language science for the conservation of global biodiversity. PLoS Biology 19: e3001296.

Christie, A.P., Amano, T., Martin, P.A., Petrovan, S.O., Shackelford, G.E., Simmons, B.I., Smith, R.K., Williams, D.R., Wordley, C.F.R. & Sutherland, W.J. 2021. The challenge of biased evidence in conservation. Conservation Biology 35(1): 249–262. 

Christie, A.P., White, T.B., Martin, P.A., Petrovan, S.O., Bladon, A.J., Bowkett, A.E., Littlewood, N.A., Mupepele, A.C., Rocha, R., Sainsbury, K.A. & Smith, R.K. (2021) Reducing publication delay to improve the efficiency and impact of conservation science. PeerJ 9: p.e12245. 

Downey, H., Amano, T., Cadotte, M., Cook, C.N., Cooke, S.J., Haddaway, N.R., Jones, J.P.G., Littlewood, N., Walsh, J.C., Abrahams, M.I., Adum, G., Akasaka, M., Alves, J.A., Antwis, R.E., Arellano, E.C., Axmacher, J., Barclay, H., Batty, L., Benítez-López, L., Bennett, J.R., Berg, M.J., Bertolino, S., Biggs, D., Bolam, F.C., Bray, T., Brook, B.W., Bull, J.W., Burivalova, Z., Cabeza, M., Chauvenet, A.L.M., Christie, A.P., Cole, L., Cotton, A.J., Cotton, S., Cousins, S.A.O., Craven, D., Cresswell, W., Cusack, J.J., Dalrymple, S., Davies, Z.G., Diaz, A., Dodd, J.A., Felton, A., Fleishman, E., Gardner, C.J., Garside, R., Ghoddousi, A., Gilroy, J.J., Gill, D.A., Gill, J.A., Glew, L., Grainger, M.H., Grass, A.A., Greshon, S., Gundry, J., Hart, T., Hopkins, C.R., Howe, C., Johnson, A., Jones, K.W., Jordan, N.R., Kadoya, T., Kerhoas, D., Koricheva,J., Lee, T.M., Lengyel, S., Livingstone, S.W., Lyons, A., McCabe, G., Millett, J., Montes Strevens, C., Moolna, A., Mossman, H.L., Mukherjee, N., Muñoz-Sáez, A., Negrões, N., Norfolk, O., Osawa, T., Papworth, S., Park, K.J., Pellet, J., Phillott, A.D., Plotnik, J., Priatna, D., Ramos, A.G., Randall, N., Richards, R.M., Ritchie, E.G., Roberts, D.L., Rocha, R., Rodríguez, J.P., Sanderson, R., Sasaki, T., Savilaakso, S., Sayer, C., Sekercioglu, C., Senzaki, M., Smith, G., Smith, R.J., Soga, M., Soulsbury, C.D., Steer, M.D., Stewart, G., Strange, E.F., Suggitt, A.J., Thompson, R.R.J., Thompson, S., Thornhill, I., Trevelyan, R.J., Usieta, H.O., Venter, O.,  Webber, A.D., White, R.L., Whittingham, M.J., Wilby, A., Yarnell, R.W., Zamora V. & Sutherland, W.J. (2021) Training future generations to deliver evidence‐based conservation and ecosystem management. Ecological Solutions and Evidence 2(1): e12032. DOI:10.1002/2688-8319.12032 

Hunter, S.B., zu Ermgassen, S.O.S.E., Downey, H., Griffiths, R.A. & Howe, C. (2021) Evidence shortfalls in the recommendations and guidance underpinning ecological mitigation for infrastructure developments. Ecological Solutions and Evidence 2(3): e12089.

Ockendon, N., Amano, T., Cadotte, M., Downey, H., Hancock, M.H., Thornton, A., Tinsley-Marshall, P. & Sutherland, W.J. (2021) Effectively integrating experiments into conservation practice. Ecological Solutions and Evidence 2(2): e12069.

Reiss-Woolever, V., Luke, S.H., Stone, J., Shackelford, G.E. & Turner, E.C. (2021) Systematic mapping shows the need for increased socio-ecological research on oil palm. Environmental Research Letters 16(6): 063002.

Shackelford, G.E., Martin, P.A., Hood, A.S.C., Christie, A.P., Kulinskaya, E. & Sutherland, W.J. (2021) Dynamic meta-analysis: a method of using global evidence for local decision making. BMC Biology 19: Article 33.

Sutherland, W.J., Downey, H., Frick, W.F., Tinsley-Marshall, P. & McPherson, T. (2021). Planning practical evidence-based decision making within time constraints: the Strategic Evidence Assessment Framework. Journal for Nature Conservation 60: 125975.

Wauchope, H.S., Amano, T., Geldmann, J., Johnston, A., Simmons, B.I., Sutherland, W., & Jones, J.P. (2021) Evaluating impact using time-series data. Trends in Ecology & Evolution36(3):196–205.


Altringham, J.D.,  Berthinussen, A. & Wordley, C.F.R. (2020) Generating, collating and using evidence for conservation. In: Sutherland, W.J., Brotherton, P.N.M., Davies, Z.G., Ockendon, N., Pettorelli N., & Vickery, J.A. (Eds.) Conservation Research, Policy and Practice. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. p.48–62.

Christie, A.P., Abecasis, D., Adjeroud, M., Alonso, J.C., Amano, T. et. al. (2020) Quantifying and addressing the prevalence and bias of study designs in the environmental and social sciences. Nature Communications 11: 6377.

Christie, A.P., Amano, T., Martin, P.A., Petrovan, S.O., Shackelford, G.E., Simmons, B.I., Smith, R.K., Williams, D.R., Wordley, C.F.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020). Poor availability of context-specific evidence hampers decision-making in conservation. Biological Conservation 248: 108666.

Junker, J., Petrovan, S.O., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Boonratana, R., Byler, D., Chapman, C.A.,  Chetry, D., Cheyne, S.M., Cornejo, F.M., Cortés-Ortiz, L., Cowlishaw, G., Christie, A.P.,  Crockford, C., De La Torre, S., De Melo, F.R., Fan, P., Grueter, C.C., Guzmán-Caro, D.C., Heymann, E.W., Herbinger, I., Hoang, M.D., Horwich, R.H., Humle, T., Ikemeh, R.A., Imong, I.S., Jerusalinsky, L., Johnson, S.E., Kappeler, P.M., Kierulff, M.C.M., Koné, I., Kormos, R., Le, K.Q., Li, B., Marshall, A.J., Meijaard, E., Mittermeier, R.A., Muroyama, Y., Neugebauer, E., Orth, L., Palacios, E., Papworth, S.K., Plumptre, A.J., Rawson, B.M., Refisch, J., Ratsimbazafy, J., Roos, C., Setchell, J.M., Smith, R.K., Sop, T., Schwitzer, C., Slater, K., Strum, S.C., Sutherland, W.J., Talebi, M., Wallis, J., Wich, S., Williamson, E.A., Wittig, R.M., Kühl, H.S. (2020) A severe lack of evidence limits effective conservation of the world's primates. BioScience 70: 794–803.

Martin, P.A., Shackelford, G.E., Bullock, J.M., Gallardo, B., Aldridge, D.C. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Management of UK priority invasive alien plants: a systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence 9: 1–11.

Pettorelli, N., Brotherton, P.N.M., Davies, Z., Ockendon, N, Sutherland, W.J. & Vickery, J.A. (2020) Successfully translating conservation research into practice and policy: concluding thoughts. In: Sutherland, W.J., Brotherton, P.N.M., Davies, Z.G., Ockendon, N., Pettorelli N., & Vickery, J.A. (Eds.) Conservation Research, Policy and Practice. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. p327–330.

Shackelford, G.E., Kemp, L., Rhodes, C., Sundaram, L., ÓhÉigeartaigh, S.S., Beard, S., Belfield, H., Weitzdörfer, J., Avin, S., Sørebø, D., Jones, E.M., Hume, J.B., Price, D., Pyle, D., Hurt, D., Stone, T., Watkins, H., Collas, L., Cade, B.C., Johnson, T.F., Freitas-Groff, Z., Denkenberger, D., Levot, M. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Accumulating evidence using crowdsourcing and machine learning: a living bibliography about existential risk and global catastrophic risk. Futures 116: 102508.

Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Conservation science – the need for a new paradigm founded on robust field evidence. In: Burt, T. & Thompson, D. (Eds.) Curious about Nature: A Passion for Fieldwork. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.

Sutherland, W.J., Alvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Amano, T., Ambrosini, R., Atkinson, P., Baxter, J.M., Bond, A.L., Boon, P.J., Buchanan, K.L., Barlow, J., Bogliani, G., Bragg, O.M., Burgman, M., Cadotte, M.W., Calver, M., Cooke, S.J., Corlett, R.T., Devictor, V., Ewen, J.G., Fisher, M., Freeman, G., Game, E., Godley, B.J., Gortázar, C., Hartley, I.R., Hawksworth, D.L., Hobson, K.A., Lu, M.-L., Martín-López, B., Ma, K., Machado, A., Maes, D., Mangiacotti, M., McCafferty, D.J., Melfi, V., Molur, S., Moore, A.J., Murphy, S.D., Norris, D., van Oudenhoven, A.P.E., Powers, J., Rees, E.C., Schwartz, M.W., Storch, I. & Wordley, C. (2020) Ensuring tests of conservation interventions build on existing literature. Conservation Biology 34(4): 781–783.

Sutherland, W.J., Brotherton, P.N.M., Davies, Z.G., Ockendon, N., Pettorelli N., & Vickery, J.A. (2020) Conservation Research, Policy and Practice. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. p.3–8.

Sutherland, W.J., Brotherton, P.N.M., Davies, Z.G., Ockendon, N., Pettorelli N., & Vickery, J.A. (2020) Making a difference in conservation: linking science and practice. In: Sutherland, W.J., Brotherton, P.N.M., Davies, Z.G., Ockendon, N., Pettorelli N., & Vickery, J.A. (Eds.) Conservation Research, Policy and Practice


Bolam, F.C., Grainger, M.J., Mengersen, K.L., Stewart, G.B., Sutherland, W.J., Runge, M.C. & McGowan, P.J.K. (2019) Using the value of information to improve conservation decision making. Biological Reviews 94: 629–647.

Christie, A., Amano, T., Martin, P., Simmons, B., Shackelford, G. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) Simple study designs in ecology produce inaccurate estimates of biodiversity responses. Journal of Applied Ecology 56: 2742–2754.

Dicks, L.V., Rose, D.C., Ang, F., Aston, S., Birch, N., Boatman, N., Bowles, L., Chadwick, D., Dinsdale, A., Durham, S., Elliott, J., Firbank, L., Humphreys, S., Jarvis, P., Jones, D., Kindred, D., Knight, S., Lee, M.R.F., Leifert, C., Lobley, M., Matthews, K., Midmer, A., Moore, M., Morris, C., Mortimer, S., Murray, C., Norman, K., Ramsden, S., Roberts, D., Smith, L., Soffe, R., Stoate, C., Taylor, B., Tinker, D., Topliff, M., Wallace, J., Williams, P., Wilson, P., Winter, M. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) What agricultural practices are most likely to deliver ‘sustainable intensification’ in the UK? Food and Energy Security 8(1): e0014.

Rose, D.C., Amano, T., González-Varo, J.P., Mukherjee, N., Robertson, R.J., Simmons, B., Wauchope, H.S. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) Calling for a new agenda for conservation science to create evidence-informed policy. Biological Conservation 238: 08222.

Salafsky, N., Boshoven, J., Burivalova, Z., Dubois, N.S., Gomez, A., Johnson, A., Lee, A., Margoluis, R., Morrison, J., Muir, M., Pratt, S.C., Pullin. A.P., Salzer, D., Stewart, A., Sutherland, W.J. & Wordley, C.F.R. (2019) Defining and using evidence in conservation practice. Conservation Science and Practice 1(5): e27, 1–15.

Shackelford, G., Kelsey, R., Sutherland, W.J., Kennedy, C., Wood, S., Gennet, S., Karp, D., Kremen, C., Seavy, N., Jedlicka, J., Gravuer, K.,Kross, S., Bossio, D., Muñoz-Sáez, A., LaHue, D., Garbach, K., Ford, L., Felice, M., Reynolds, M., Rao, D., Boomer, K., LeBuhn G., & Dicks, L. (2019) Evidence synthesis as the basis for decision analysis: a method of selecting the best agricultural practices for multiple ecosystem services. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3: Article 83.

Sutherland, W.J., Taylor, N.G., MacFarlane, D., Amano, T., Christie, A.P., Dicks, L.V., Lemasson, A.J., Littlewood, N.A., Martin, P.A., Ockendon, N., Petrovan, S.O., Robertson, R.J., Rocha, R., Shackelford, G.E., Smith, R.K., Tyler, E.H.M., & Wordley, C.F.R. (2019) Building a tool to overcome barriers in the research-implementation space: the Conservation Evidence database. Biological Conservation 238: 108199.

Tallis, H., Kreis, K., Olander, L., Ringler, C., Ameyaw, D., Borsuk, M.E., Fletschner, D., Game, E., Gilligan, D.O., Jeuland, M., Sutherland, W.J., et al. (2019) Aligning evidence generation and use across health, development, and environment. Current Opinion on Environmental Sustainability 39: 81–93.

Taylor, N.G., Grillas, P., Fennessy, M.S., Goodyer, E., Graham, L.L.B., Karofeld, E., Lindsay, R.A., Locky, D.A., Ockendon, N., Rial, A., Ross, S., Smith, R.K., van Diggelen, R., Whinam, J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) A synthesis of evidence for the effects of interventions to conserve peatland vegetation: overview and critical discussion. Mires and Peat 24: Article 18, 1–21.

Walsh, J.C., Dicks, L.V., Raymond, C.M. & Sutherland, W.J (2019) A typology of barriers and enablers of scientific evidence use in conservation practice. Journal of Environmental Management 250: 109481.


Game, E.T., Tallis, H., Olander, L., Alexandere, S.M., Busch, J.Cartwright, N., Kalies, E.L., Masuda, Y.J., Mupepele, A-C., Jiangxiao Qiu, J., Rooney, A., Sills, E., & Sutherland. W.J. (2018) Cross-discipline evidence principles for social-environmental sustainability. Nature Sustainability 1: 452–454.

Iacona, G.D., Sutherland, W.J., Mappin, B., Adams, V., Armsworth, P.R., Coleshaw, T., Cook, C., Craigie, I., Dicks, L., Fitzsimons, J.A., McGowan, J., Plumptre, A., Polak, T., Pullin, A., Ringma, J., Rushworth, I., Santangeli, A., Stewart, A., Tulloch. A., Walsh, J. & Possingham, H.P. (2018) Standardized reporting on the costs of management interventions for biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology: 32: 979–988.

Petrovan, S.O., Junker, J., Wordley, C.F.R., Kühl, H.S., Orth, L., Smith, R.K. & Sutherland, W.J. (2018) Evidence-based synopsis of interventions, a new tool in primate conservation and research. International Journal of Primatology 39: 1-4.

Rose, D.C., Sutherland, W.J., Amano, T., González‐Varo, J.P., Robertson, R.J., Simmons, B.I., Wauchope, H.S., Kovacs, E., Durán, A.P., Vadrot, A.B., Wu, W., Dias, M.P., Di Fonzo, M.M., Ivory, S., Norris, L., Nunes, M.H., Nyumba, T.O., Steiner, N., Vickery, J. & Mukherjee, N. (2018) The major barriers to evidence‐informed conservation policy and possible solutions. Conservation Letters 11: e12564.

Shackelford, G.E., Haddaway, M.R., Usieta, H.O., Pypers, P., Petrovan, S.O. & Sutherland, W.J. (2018) Cassava farming practices and their agricultural and environmental outcomes: a systematic map protocol. Environmental Evidence 7: 30.

Sutherland W.J. & Wordley C.F.R. (2018) A fresh approach to evidence synthesis. Nature 558: 364-366.


Cook, C.N., Pullin, A.S., Sutherland, W.J., Stewart, G.B. & Carrasco, R. (2017) Considering cost alongside the effectiveness of management in evidence-based conservation: A systematic reporting protocol. Biological Conservation 209: 508–516.

Sutherland W.J. & Wordley C.F. (2017) Evidence complacency hampers conservation. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1(9): 1215-1216.


Amano, T., González-Varo, J.P. & Sutherland, W.J. (2016) Languages are still a major barrier to global science. PLOS Biology 14(12): e2000933.

Amano, T., Lamming, J.D.L. & Sutherland, W.J. (2016) Spatial gaps in global biodiversity Information and the role of citizen science. Bioscience 66(5): 393–400.

Dicks, L.V., Wright, H.L., Ashpole, J.E., Hutchison, J., McCormack, C.G., Livoreil, B., Zulka, K.P. & Sutherland, W.J. (2016) What works in conservation? Using expert assessment of summarised evidence to identify practices that enhance natural pest control in agriculture. Biodiversity and Conservation 25: 1383-1399. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-016-1133-7

Mukherjee, N., Dicks, L.V., Shackelford, G.E., Vira, B. & Sutherland, W.J. (2016) Comparing groups versus individuals in decision making: a systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence 5: 19.

Mupepele, A-C., Walsh, J.C., Sutherland, W.J. & Dormann, C.F. 2016. An evidence assessment tool for ecosystem services and conservation studies. Ecological Applications 26: 1295-1301. 

Santangeli, A., Arroyo, B., Dicks, L.V., Herzon, I., Kukkala, A.S., Sutherland, W.J., Moilanen, A. (2016) Voluntary non-monetary approaches for implementing conservation. Biological Conservation 197: 209-214.


Jones A.C., Mead A., Kaiser M.J., Austen M.C.V., Adrian A.W., Auchterlonie N.A., Black K.D., Blow L.R., Bury C., Brown J.H., Burnell G.A., Connolly E., Dingwall A., Derrick S., Eno N.C., Gautier D.J.H., Green K.A., Gubbins M., Hart P.R., Holmyard J.M., Immink A.J., Jarrad D.J., Katoh E., Langley J.C.R., Lee D. O’C., LeVay L., Leftwich C.P., Mitchell M., Moore A.P., Murray A.G., McLaren E.M.R., Norbury H., Parker D., Parry S.O., Purchase D., Rahman A., Sanver F., Siggs M., Simpson S.D., Slaski R.J., Smith K., Syvret M. LeQ., Tibbot C., Thomas P.C., Turnbull J., Whiteley R., Whittles M., Wilcockson M.J., Wilson J., Dicks L.V., & Sutherland W.J. (2015) Prioritisation of knowledge-needs for sustainable aquaculture: a national and global perspective. Fish and Fisheries 16: 668-683.

Hopkins J., Ockendon N. & Sutherland W.J. (2015) Our mission to transform conservation practiceConservation Evidence 12: 1.

Mukherjee, N., Hugé, J., Sutherland, W.J., McNeill, J., Van Opstal, M., Dahdouh-Guebas, F. & Koedam, N. (2015) The Delphi technique in ecology and biological conservation: applications and guidelines. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6: 1097-1109.

Smith, R.K., Dicks, L.V. & Sutherland, W.J. (2015) Scientific evidence to address priority knowledge needs for sustainable agriculture. University of Cambridge, UK.

Spooner F., Smith R.K. & Sutherland W.J. (2015) Trends, biases and effectiveness in reported conservation interventionsConservation Evidence 12: 2-7.

Walsh, J.C., Dicks, L.V. & Sutherland, W.J. (2015) The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners’ management decisions. Conservation Biology 29: 88-98.


Dicks, L.V., Hodge, I., Randall, N., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Siriwardena, G.M., Smith, H.G., Smith, R.K. & Sutherland, W.J. (2014) A transparent process for ‘evidence‐informed’ policy making. Conservation Letters 7: 119-125.

Dicks, L. V., Walsh, J. C. & Sutherland, W. J. (2014) Organising evidence for environmental management decisions: a “4S” hierarchy. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 29: 607-613.

Hoffmann, A., Penner, J., Cramer, W., Doubleday, R., Henle, K.,  Kuhn, I., Kunin, W.E., Negro, J.J., Penev, L., Rodriguez, C., Saarenmaa, H., Schmeller, D.S., Stoev, P., Sutherland, W.J., Tuama, E.O., Wetzel, F. & Hauser, C.L. (2014) Improved access to integrated biodiversity data for science, practice, and policy - the European Biodiversity Observation Network (EU BON). Nature Conservation 6: 49-65.

Moilanen,A., Laitila, J., Vaahtoranta, T., Dicks, L.V. & Sutherland, W.J. (2014) Structured analysis of conservation strategies applied to temporary conservation. Biological Conservation 170: 188-197.

Pe'er, G., Dicks, L.V., Visconti, P., Arlettaz, R., Báldi, A., Benton, T.G., Collins, S., Dieterich, M., Gregory, R.D., Hartig, F., Henle, K., Hobson, P.R., Kleijn, D., Neumann, R.K., Robijns, T., Schmidt, J., Shwartz, A., Sutherland, W.J., Turbé, A., Wulf, F. & Scott, A.V. (2014)  EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity. Science 344: 1090-1092.

Smith R.K., Dicks L.V., Mitchell R. & Sutherland W.J. (2014) Comparative effectiveness research: the missing link in conservationConservation Evidence 11: 2-6.

Sutherland, W. J., Gardner, T., Bogich, T. L.,  Bradbury, R. B., Clothier, B., Jonsson, M., Kapos, V., Lane, S. N., Möller, I., Schroeder, M., Spalding, M., Spencer, T., White, P. C. L. & Dicks, L.V. (2014) Solution ccanning as a key policy tool: Identifying management interventions to help maintain and enhance Rrgulating ecosystem services. Ecology and Society 19: 3.

Sutherland, W.J., Gardner, T.A., Haider, J. & Dicks, L.V. (2014) How can local and traditional knowledge be effectively incorporated into international assessments? Oryx 48: 1-2.

Sutherland, W.J., Smith, R.K., Mitchell, R. & Dicks, L.V. (2014) Introduction of short communications in the Conservation Evidence journal. Conservation Evidence 11: 1.


Amano, T. & Sutherland, W .J. (2013) Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security. Proc. R. Soc. B. 280: 20122649.

Dicks, L.V., Abrahams, A., Atkinson, J., Biesmeijer, J.C., Bourn, N., Brown, C., Brown, M., Carvell, C., Connolly, C., Cresswell, J., Croft, P., Darvill, B., de Zylva, P., Effingham, P., Fountain, M., Goggin, A., Harding, D., Harding, T., Hartfield, C., Heard, M.S., Heathcote, R., Heaver, D., Holland, J., Howe, M., Hughes, B., Huxley, T., Kunin, W.E., Little, J., Mason, C., Memmott, J., Osborne, J., Pankhurst, T., Paxton, R.J., Pocock, M., Potts, S.G., Power, E., Raine, N. Ranelagh, E., Roberts, S., Saunders, R., Smith, K., Smith, R.M., Sutton, P., Tilley, L., Tinsley, A., Tonhasca, A., Vanbergen, A.J., Webster, S., Wilson, A., Sutherland, W.J. (2013) Identifying key knowledge needs for evidence-based conservation of wild insect pollinators: a collaborative cross-sectoral exercise. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6: 435-446.

Dicks, L.V., Bardgett, R.D., Bell, J., Benton, T.G., Booth, A., Bouwman, J., Brown, C., Bruce, A., Burgess, P.J., Butler, S.J., Crute, I., Dixon, F., Drummond, C., Freckleton, R.P., Gill, M., Graham, A., Hails, R.S., Hallett, J., Hart, B., Hillier, J.G., Holland, J.M., Huxley, J.N., Ingram, J.S.I., King, V., MacMillan, T., McGonigle, D.F., McQuaid, C., Nevard, T., Norman, S., Norris, K., Pazderka, C., Poonaji, I., Quinn, C.H., Ramsden, S.J., Sinclair, D., Siriwardena, G.M., Vickery, J.A., Whitmore, A.P., Wolmer, W. & Sutherland, W.J. (2013) What do we need to know to enhance the environmental sustainability of agricultural production? A prioritisation of knowledge needs for the UK food system. Sustainability 5: 3095-3115.

Ingram, J.S.I., Wright, H.L., Foster, L., Aldred, T., Barling, D., Benton, T.G., Berryman, P.M., Bestwick, C.S., Bows-Larkin, A., Brocklehurst, T.F., Buttriss, J., Casey, J., Collins, H., Crossley, D.S., Dolan, C.S., Dowler, E., Edwards, R., Finney, K.J., Fitzpatrick, J.L., Fowler, M., Garrett, D.A., Godfrey, J.E., Godley, A., Griffiths, W., Houlston, E.J., Kaiser, M.J., Kennard, R., Knox, J.W., Kuyk, A., Linter, B.R., Macdiarmid, J.I., Martindale, W., Mathers, J.C., McGonigle, D.F., Mead, A., Millar, S.J., Miller, A., Murray, C., Norton, I.T., Parry, S., Pollicino, M., Quested, T.E., Tassou, S., Terry, L.A., Tiffin, R., van de Graaf, P., Vorley, W., Westby, A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2013) Priority research questions for the UK food system. Food Security 5: 617-636.

Pullin, A.S., Sutherland, W.J., Gardner, T., Kapos, V. & Fa, J.E. (2013) Conservation priorities: Identifying need, taking action and evaluating success. In: MacDonald, D.W. & Willis, K.J. (Eds.) Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2. John Wiley & Sons: Oxford. pp. 3-22. DOI:10.1002/9781118520178

Redpath, S.M., Young, J., Evely, A., Adams, W.M., Sutherland, W.J., Whitehouse, A., Amar,A., Lambert, R., Linnell, J., Watt, A. & Gutièrrez, R.J. (2013) Biodiversity conservation conflicts: a roadmap to resolution.  Understanding and managing biodiversity conflicts?  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28: 100-109.

Sutherland, W.J. (2013) Evidence-based fields should pollinate one another. Research Fortnight 420: 22.

Sutherland W.J., Mitchell R, Walsh J., Amano T., Ausden M., Beebee T.J.C., Bullock D., Daniels M., Deutsch J., Griffiths R.A., Prior S. V., Whitten T. & Dicks L.V. (2013) Conservation practice could benefit from routine testing and publication of management outcomesConservation Evidence 10: 1-3.


Sutherland, W.J. & Freckleton, R.P. (2012) Making predictive ecology more relevant to policy makers and practitioners. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 367: 322-330.

Sutherland W.J., Mitchell R. & Prior S. V. (2012) The role of 'Conservation Evidence' in improving conservation managementConservation Evidence 9: 1-2.


Dicks, L & Sutherland, W.J. (2011) Evidence-based conservation on farmland – making it possibleIn Practice 71: 16-18.

Smith, R.K., Pullin, A.S., Stewart, G.B. & Sutherland, W.J. (2011) Is nest predator exclusion an effective strategy for enhancing bird populations? Biological Conservation 144: 1-10.

Sutherland, W.J., Goulson, D., Potts, S.G. & Dicks, L.V. (2011) Quantifying the impact and relevance of scientific research. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27537.

Sutherland, W.J. & Peel, M.J.S. (2011) Benchmarking as a means of improving conservation practice. Oryx 45: 56-59.


Milner-Gulland, E.J., Fisher, M., Browne, S., Redford, K.H., Spencer M., & Sutherland W. J. (2010) Do we need to develop a more relevant conservation literature? Oryx 44: 1-2.

Smith, R.K., Pullin, A.S., Stewart, G.B. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) The effectiveness of predator removal for enhancing bird populations: a systematic review. Conservation Biology 24: 820-829.

Stewart, G.B. Bayliss, H.R. Showler, D.A. Sutherland, W.J. & Pullin, A.S. (2009) Effectiveness of engineered in-stream structure mitigation measures for increasing salmonid abundance: a systematic review. Ecological Application 19: 931-941.

Sutherland, W,J., Armstrong, D., Butchart, S.H.M., Earnhardt, J., Ewen, J., Jamieson, I., Jones, C.G., Lee, R., Newbery, P., Nichols, J.D., Parker, K. A., Sarrazin, F., Seddon, P., Shah, N. & Tatayah, V. (2010) Standards for documenting and monitoring bird reintroduction projects. Conservation Letters 3: 229-235.


Catry, I., Alcazar, R., Franco, A.M.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2009) Identifying the effectiveness and constraints of conservation interventions: A case study of the endangered lesser kestrel Biological Conservation 142: 2782-2791.

Stewart, G.B., Bayliss, H.R., Showler, D.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Pullin, A.S. (2009) Effectiveness of engineered in-stream structure mitigation measures for increasing salmonid abundance: a systematic review. Ecological Applications 19: 931–941.


Stewart, G.B., Bayliss, H.R., Showler, D.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Pullin, A.S. (2007) What are the effect of Salmonid stocking in lakes on native fish populations and other fauna and flora? Collaboration for Environmental Evidence CEE Review 05-007: 1-57.


Sutherland, W.J. (2005). How can we make conservation more effective? Oryx 39: 1-2.

Sutherland, W.J., Pullin, A.S., Dolman, P.M. & Knight, T.M. (2005) Response to Mathevet and Mauchamp: Evidence-based conservation: dealing with social issues. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 424-425. DOI:10.1016/j.tree.2005.05.020


Sutherland, W.J. Pullin, A.S. Dolman, P.M. & Knight, T.M. (2004) Response to Griffiths: Mismatches between conservation science and practice. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 565-566.

Sutherland, W.J., Pullin, A.S., Dolman, P.M. & T.M. Knight (2004) The need for evidence-based conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 305-308.


Kleijn, D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2003) How effective are European agri-environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity? Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 947-969.

Sutherland, W.J. (2003) Evidence-based conservation. Conservation in Practice 4: 39-41.


Sutherland, W.J. (2000) The Conservation Handbook: Research, Management and Policy. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific. pp. 296. DOI:10.1002/9780470999356 

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Conservation Guidance Series

On its way......


Downey, H., Bretagnolle, V., Brick, C., Bulman, C.R., Cooke, S.J., Dean, M., Edmonds, B., Frick, W.F., Friedman, K., McNicol, C., Nichols, C., Herbert, S., O’Brien, D., Ockendon, N., Petrovan, S., Stroud, D., White, T.B., Worthington, T.A. and Sutherland , W.J. (2022) Principles for the production of evidence-based guidance for conservation actions. Conservation Science and Practice  4(5): e12663.

Häkkinen, H., Petrovan, S., Taylor, N.G., Sutherland, W.J. & Pettorelli, N. (2023) Seabirds in the North-East Atlantic. Open Book Publishers: Cambridge, UK.

Popular articles


Al-Fulaij, N. (People's trust for Endangered Species) & Holmes, B. (The Helvellyn Foundation) (2023) How funders can make conservation more effective.

Bowkett, A.E. (Projects and Partnerships Manager, Paignton Zoo, Wild Planet Trust); Martin, T.E. (Zoo Evidence Officer, Paignton Zoo, Wild Planet Trust and School of Natural Sciences, University of Bangor); Lemasson, A.J. (Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth); Petrovan, S.O., Smith, R.K. & Sutherland, W.J. (Conservation Evidence Project Team, Conservation Science Group, University of Cambridge). (2023) Body of evidence: A global evidence map for zoo and aquarium husbandry has the potential to transform the quality of our knowledge and our work. Zooquaria 118: 26 (Summer 2023).

Miller, F & Ockendon, O. (2023) Using evidence: what role for funders and philanthropists? 9 April 2023.


Christie, A. (2022) Helping practitioners to make and document conservation decisions: the Evidence-to-Decision tool. January 25 2022.  

Garget, J. (2022) Conservation: it's time to look at the evidence. June 29 2022.

Willott, K. (2022) What works in conservation? Countryside Jobs Service: Features, Feb 2022.


Christie, A. (2021) Helping practitioners to make and document conservation decisions: the Evidence-to-Decision tool. Conservation Land Management 19:4 Winter 2021 edition. 

Dean, M, Downey H & Edmonds B (2021) Good Practice Guidance- Where’s the Evidence? CIEEM In Practice, June 2021


Downey, H. (2020) Learning from the past to educate for the future: the need for evidence in conservation education programmes. Natterchat, Autumn 2020. 

Downey, H. (2020) A mammoth task: collating the evidence on what works in terrestrial mammal conservation. Mammal News, Summer 2020. 

Downey, H. (2020) Evidence-based decision making in conservation and land management: why it is important and how it can be done. Conservation Land Management 18: 14-19.

Rose, D., Burgman, M. & Sutherland, W.J. (2020) The civil service doesn't just need more scientists-it needs a decision-making revolution. LSE: Impact of Social Sciences Blog, January 2020.


Downey, H., Petrovan, S. & Sutherland W.J. (2019) A million papers: providing evidence to underpin SSC practice. IUCN SSC Quarterly Report, September 2019.

Wordley, C. (2019) On a wing and a prayer? Evidence for ways to conserve bats (commentary). Mongabay: Conservation Effectiveness Series, April 2019.

Wordley, C. (2019) A call to wings., March 2019.

Wordley, C. (2019) (No longer available online)

Wordley, C. (2019) Guest blog - Swift starter kits. Mark Avery Blog, March 2019.

Wordley, C. (2019) Bats about evidence. Australasian Bat Society.


Wordley, C. (2018) What works in conservation 2018., May 2018.

Wordley, C. (2018) Making the most of conservation science (commentary). Mongabay, May 2018. http://

Wordley, C. (2018) Guest blog - Evidence, experts and effectiveness in conservation. Mark Avery Blog, May 2018.

Wordley, C. (2018) How effective is environmental restoration? – Audio. Mongabay, March 2018.

Wordley, C. (2018) Restoration revisited. Rewildling Europe, March 2018.

Wordley, C. (2018) Restoring optimism. Conservation Optimism: Our Blog, March 2018.

Wordley, C. (2018) Restoration optimism: Bringing nature back (commentary). Mongabay: Conservation Effectiveness Series, Feb 2018.

Wordley, C. (2018) Bring it back., Feb 2018.

Wordley, C. (2018) The beauty in the bog. The Freshwater Blog, February 2018.

Wordley, C. (2018) Moor evidence than ever. CIEEM news, Feb 2018. (No longer available online)


Wordley, C. (2017) Monkey business: Building a global database of primate conservation studies (commentary). Mongabay, December 2017.

Wordley, C. (2017) Giving a monkey’s about primate conservation., December 2017.

Wordley, C. (2017) Keeping lions from livestock - building fences can save lives., June 2017.

Wordley, C. (2017) What works in conservation? International Association for Landscape Ecology, Spring 2017 Newsletter.

Wordley, C. (2017) What works in conservation. Dr James Borrell Blog, Feb 2017.

Wordley, C. (2017) Do you know what works in conservation? NBN Blogs, January 2017.

Wordley, C. (2017) The evidence strikes back - what works 2017., January 2017.

Wordley, C. (2017) What works in conservation? Sex & Bugs & Rock ‘n Roll: Bite-sized ecology A-Z.

Wordley, C. (2017) Prism: evaluation toolkit. 


Wordley, C. (2016) Battling the seven-headed hydra: Crassula control in Europe., November 2016.

Wordley, C. (2016) Invasion of the swamp monster. The Freshwater Blog, November 2016.

Wordley, C. (2016) Seeing the wood for the trees., July 2016.

Wordley, C. (2016) AEWA Launches New Partnership with Conservation Evidence.

Wordley, C. (2016) What is Conservation Evidence?

Wordley, C. (2016) What works in freshwater conservation? The Freshwater Blog, August 2016.


Dicks, L. (2010) Translating ecology for the real world. BES Bulletin 41(4): 48-50.


Smith, R.K. (2012) Amphibian conservation – call for evidence. Froglog 20(4) Issue 103: 4. 

Smith, R.K. (2012) Amphibian conservation – call for evidence. The Canadian Herpetologist 2(2), Fall 2012.


Smith, R.K. (2013) Evidence for amphibian conservation: a global synopsis. Froglog 21(2) Issue 106: 19. 


Smith, R.K. (2014) Now available: synopsis of evidence on global amphibian conservation. Froglog 22(1) Issue 109: 14-15.

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Written by others about Conservation Evidence

Listed below is a selection of articles which cite our work or which have been written about Conservation Evidence by other people and organisations.

Stokstad, E. (2023) China battles alien marsh grass at unprecedented scale. Science 379(6636): 972. 

Delahay, R. (2022) Presentation: Evidence and Ecological Consultancy. RSK Biocensus.

Kimbrough, L. (2022) Conservation costs are rarely reported, making it difficult to prioritize funding. Mongabay, 29 April 2022. 

Beds, Cambs, Northants Wildlife Trust (2021) Banking on butterflies project.

Jackson, M.V. & Straw, P. (2021) Coastal high-tide shorebird habitat management guidelines: Guidelines for maintaining and managing natural or artificial (i.e. human-created) coastal wetlands to provide suitable high tide roosting conditions for shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Australasian Wader Studies Group.

Frick, W.F., Kingston, T., Flanders, J. (2020) A review of the major threats and challenges to global bat conservation. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci 1469(1): 5-25.

Navarro, C. et al. (2020) Méthodes d’expertise: comment les utiliser ? Expertise et synthèse. Guide. Paris, France: FRB, 104 p.

Navarro, C. et al. (2020) Méthodes d’expertise: comment les utiliser ?. Summary leaflet. Paris, France: FRB, 8 p.

Evans, A.J., Firth, L.B., Hawkins, S.J., Halle, A.E., Ironside, J.E., Thompson, R.C. & Moore, PJ. (2019) From ocean sprawl to blue-green infrastructure - A UK perspective on an issue of global significance. Environmental Science and Policy 91: 60-69.

Godet, L. & Devictor, V. (2018) What conservation does. Trends in Ecology & Evolution October 2018, Vol. 33(10): 720-730.

Hart, K., Mottershead, D., Tucker, G., Underwood, E., Maréchal, A., Menet, L., (2017) Evaluation study of the payment for agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment. Final Report. European Commission. Alliance Environnement and the Thünen Institute, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Hill, C. (2018) Farmland pollinator declines can be reversed, UEA expert tells farmers. Eastern Daily Press, 15 February 2018.

IUCN (2017) Maximise the impact of your research with Conservation Evidence. IUCN Peatland Programme news, September 2017.

IUCN-SSC Species Conservation Planning Sub-Committee (2017) Guidelines for Species Conservation Planning. Version 1.0. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. xiv + 114 pp. 10.2305/IUCN.CH.2017.18.en

O’Brien, D., Mackey, E. & Thompson, D. (2017) Evidence complacency hampers conservation. SNH Science Newsletter, Issue 21, September 2017. Accessed from

British Ecological Society (2016) The Future of the Natural Environment after the EU Referendum inquiry: A response from the British Ecological Society to the Environmental Audit Committee Inquiry. 9 September 2016.

European Commission (2016) Nudging may be better than shoving: voluntary non-monetary approaches to conservation. Science for Environment Policy Issue 460, 24 June 2016, European Commission DG Environment News Alert Service, edited by SCU, The University of the West of England, Bristol.

Gaworecki, M. (2016) Putting the ‘evidence’ in evidence-based forest conservation. Mongabay, July 2016.

IUCN-SSC (2016) What works in conservation? IUCN-SSC Species e-bulletin, February 2016 (No longer available online)

Chaplin, S. (2015) Summary of evidence: Land management. Natural England Access to Evidence Information Note EIN008, First edition 10 March 2015.

McAney, K. & Hanniffy, R. (2015) The Vincent Wildlife Trust’s Irish bat box schemes. The Vincent Wildlife Trust, UK Report.

Mitchell, C. (2015) What works in conservation? Update - SNH Staff Newsletter, October 2015.

Yorke, R. (2015) Game cuckoos. Rob Yorke Blog, September 2015.

DEFRA (2014) A consultation on the National Pollinator Strategy: for bees and other pollinators in England. DEFRA, March 2014.

DEFRA (2014) Supporting document to the National Pollinator Strategy: for bees and other pollinators in England. DEFRA, November 2014.

Department of Conservation (2014) Improvements to Biodiversity Assets Systems and Processes Report DOCDM-1469886: Final Version 1.0. September 2014. New Zealand Dept of Conservation.

Fuller, R.A., Lee, J.R. & Watson, J.E.M. (2014) Achieving open access to conservation science. Conservation Biology 28(6): 1550-1557.

Moses, K. (2013) RSPB urges British public to create 1m 'homes for nature'. The Guardian, June 2013.

Scottish Government (2013) Consultation on Scotland Rural Development Programme (SRDP) 2014 – 2020: Stage 2: Final Proposals, published 11 Dec 2013.

Stowe, T. (2013) How to save birds – Review, Bird conservation: Global evidence for the effects of interventions. Birdwatch, July 2013, Number 253, p56.

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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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