Change type of livestock

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

  • Two studies evaluated the effect of changing type of livestock on mammals. One study was in the UK and one was in the Netherlands.



  • Abundance (2 studies): One replicated, randomized, paired sites, controlled, before-and-after study in the UK found that sheep and cattle grazing increased field vole abundance relative to sheep-only grazing. One replicated, randomized, paired sites study in the Netherlands found that cattle grazing increased vole abundance relative to horse grazing.


About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A replicated, randomized, paired sites, controlled, before-and-after study in 2002–2004 on an upland grassland site in Scotland, UK (Evans et al. 2006) found that, after two years, grazing with sheep and cattle increased field vole Microtus agrestis abundance relative to sheep-only grazing. In the first year of the experiment, a similar proportion of quadrats had signs of voles in sheep and cattle plots (11%) and sheep only plots (12%). In the second year, the proportion with vole signs was higher in sheep and cattle (16%) than sheep only plots (11%). Before the experiment began, there was no difference in the frequency of vole signs between plots. Plots were grazed similarly up to 2002 (rate not stated). From 2003, there were six replicates (each 3.3 ha) of sheep and cattle grazing (two ewes/plot and, for four weeks/year, two cattle each with a suckling calf) and sheep only grazing (three ewes/plot). Treatments were designed to have similar overall grazing intensity. Five 25 cm × 25 cm quadrats at each of five points in each plot were searched for vole signs in April and October of 2002–2004.

    Study and other actions tested
  2. A replicated, randomized, paired sites, controlled study in 2010–2013 on a coastal salt marsh in the Netherlands (van Klink et al. 2016) found that plots grazed by cattle contained more signs of vole Microtus spp. presence than did plots grazed by horses. After four years, a greater proportion of surveyed quadrats contained signs of vole presence in plots grazed by cattle than in plots grazed by horses (data not reported). Twelve plots were established (in three sets of four plots) on a grazed salt marsh. From 2010, six plots (two random plots/set) were grazed by each livestock type: cows (600 kg) or horses (700 kg). Grazing occurred in summer (June–October) only. Half of the plots were grazed at high intensity (1.0 animal/ha) and half were grazed at low intensity (0.5 animals/ha). In October 2013, sixty quadrats (2 m2) were surveyed in the higher elevations of each plot for signs of vole presence (runways, fresh plant fragments or faecal pellets). Some flooded quadrats were excluded from analyses.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Littlewood, N.A., Rocha, R., Smith, R.K., Martin, P.A., Lockhart, S.L., Schoonover, R.F., Wilman, E., Bladon, A.J., Sainsbury, K.A., Pimm S. and Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Terrestrial Mammal Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for terrestrial mammals excluding bats and primates. Synopses of Conservation Evidence Series. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

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Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation - Published 2020

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

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