Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Establish “green infrastructure” in urban areas One study evaluated the effects of establishing “green infrastructure in urban areas on butterflies and moths. This study was in Taiwan. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Taiwan found that green roofs had a lower species richness of butterflies than urban parks. POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Taiwan found that green roofs had a lower abundance of butterflies than urban parks, but the abundance was higher on older green roofs with more nectar plant species in a larger area. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3837https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3837Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:32:09 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Apply ecological compensation for developments Two studies evaluated the effects of on butterflies and moths of applying ecological compensation for developments. One was in the USA and the other was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One study in Australia reported that a population of purple copper butterfly caterpillars translocated from a development site to an area of compensatory and retained habitat increased in number over three years. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One site comparison study in the USA reported that an area of lupines transplanted from a development site was used by a similar number of Karner blue butterflies to an area with no transplanted lupines. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3839https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3839Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:40:59 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter mowing regimes on greenspaces and road verges Seven studies evaluated the effects of altering mowing regimes on greenspaces and road verges on butterflies and moths. One study was in each of Finland, the Netherlands, Poland, Germany, the UK, Canada and Sweden. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (3 studies): Two replicated, paired, controlled studies in Germany and the UK found that less frequently mown or unmown urban greenspaces had a higher species richness and diversity of butterflies and moths than more frequently mown areas. One replicated, site comparison study in Canada found that the management of road verges (and land under power lines) did not affect the species richness of butterflies. POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Abundance (3 studies): Two replicated studies (including one paired, controlled study) in the UK and Canada found that unmown public parks and road verges (and land under power lines) had a higher abundance of all adult butterflies and pearl crescent and northern pearl crescent butterflies than regularly mown areas, but the abundance of other butterflies on the road verges (and under power lines) was similar between mown and unmown areas in the second study. One study in Finland found that roadsides mown in late summer had more ringlet butterflies than those mown in mid-summer. Survival (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Poland found that road verges mown less frequently, or later in summer, had fewer dead butterflies killed by traffic than more frequently or earlier mown verges. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One replicated, site comparison study in Sweden reported that less frequently mown urban grasslands were more frequently occupied by scarce copper butterflies than more frequently mown grasslands. One replicated, randomized, controlled study in the Netherlands found that butterflies were recorded on verges which were mowed once or twice a year and those which were not mowed, but on mowed verges butterflies were only recorded on those where hay was removed. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3841https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3841Mon, 04 Jul 2022 15:45:31 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Change turbine colour to reduce insect attraction We found no studies that evaluated the effects of changing turbine colour to reduce attraction to butterflies and moths. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3844https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3844Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:07:53 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Design the route of roads to maximize habitat block size We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of designing the route of roads to maximize habitat block size. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3851https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3851Tue, 05 Jul 2022 11:33:46 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Enhance natural habitat to improve landscape connectivity to allow for range shifts We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of enhancing natural habitat to improve landscape connectivity and allow for range shifts. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3857https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3857Tue, 05 Jul 2022 15:29:10 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create microclimate and microhabitat refuges We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of creating microclimate and microhabitat refuges. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3859https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3859Tue, 05 Jul 2022 15:32:15 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Harvest groups of trees or use thinning instead of clearcutting Three studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of harvesting groups of trees or using thinning instead of clearcutting. All three studies were in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (3 studies): One controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that the species richness of macro-moths was higher after a forest was harvested by thinning, than after harvest by patch-cutting or clearcutting, and the richness in the thinned forest was similar to an unharvested forest. One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that forests managed by group selection harvesting had a similar species richness of moths to forests managed by single tree harvesting or clearcutting, but a lower species richness than unharvested forest. One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that moth species richness recovered at a similar rate after management by group selection harvesting or clearcutting, but recovery in both was slower than after shelterwood harvesting. POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3868https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3868Mon, 18 Jul 2022 14:45:39 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create or retain deadwood in forest management One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of creating or retaining deadwood in forest management. This study was in Sweden. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Sweden found that sites where deadwood had been left for many years had a higher abundance of Scardia boletella moths than conventionally managed sites in one of two regions, but the occurrence of Archinemapogon yildizae moths was similar across all sites. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3873https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3873Mon, 18 Jul 2022 16:00:36 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Encourage natural regeneration in former plantations or logged forest Four studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of encouraging natural regeneration in former plantations or logged forest. One study was in each of Côte d’Ivoire, Japan, Ghana and Uganda. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): One site comparison study in Côte d’Ivoire found that rarer species of fruit-feeding butterfly were more frequently caught in a naturally regenerating forest than in a forest still managed by thinning. One replicated, site comparison study in Japan found that the moth community was different between naturally regenerating forests of different ages. One site comparison study in Ghana found that a naturally regenerating forest had a butterfly community more similar to forest replanted nine years ago than a primary forest or a clear-cut area. Richness/diversity (4 studies): One site comparison study in Côte d’Ivoire found that a naturally regenerating forest had a similar species richness and diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies to a forest still managed by thinning. One replicated, site comparison study in Japan found that naturally regenerating forests had a greater species richness of moths than plantations. One site comparison study in Ghana found that a naturally regenerating forest had lower butterfly species richness than a primary forest, but similar richness to a clear-cut area and a nine-year old replanted forest, and lower community diversity than a primary forest and a clear-cut area. One replicated, site comparison study in Uganda found that naturally regenerating forests had a similar species richness of butterflies to pristine forests, but richness was highest 12–25 years after felling. POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (3 studies): One site comparison study in Côte d’Ivoire found that a naturally regenerating forest had a similar abundance of fruit-feeding butterflies to a forest still managed by thinning. One replicated, site comparison study in Japan found that naturally regenerating forests had a greater abundance of moths than plantations. One replicated, site comparison study in Uganda found that naturally regenerating forests had a similar abundance of butterflies to pristine forests, but abundance was highest 12–25 years after felling. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3876https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3876Mon, 18 Jul 2022 16:06:44 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Change season/timing of prescribed burning Two studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of changing the season or timing of prescribed burning. One study was in each of Australia and the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in Australia found that management of a tropical savanna and floodplain with early season burning or no burning for 2–5 years increased the abundance of caterpillars, but management with late season burning did not. One replicated, paired, controlled study in the USA found that Karner blue butterfly abundance was similar on grasslands managed by burning in summer or autumn, and on unmanaged grasslands. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3878https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3878Thu, 21 Jul 2022 16:32:42 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Convert to organic farming Thirteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of converting to organic farming. Six studies were in Sweden, three were in the UK and one was in each of Canada, Switzerland, Germany and Taiwan. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (13 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (13 studies): Seven of 11 replicated, site comparison studies (including five paired studies) in Sweden, the UK, Canada, Switzerland, Germany and Taiwan found that organic arable farms had a greater species richness of butterflies, burnet moths and all moths than conventionally managed farms. However, three of these studies only found this in intensively managed not in more diverse landscapes,only in the first of three study years, and in farms managed organically for <6 years but not 15–23 years. Four of the studies found that organic arable and mixed farms had a similar species richness of macro-moths and butterflies to conventionally managed farms. Two of these studies also found that on organic and conventionally managed farms within a landscape with a high proportion of organic farms there was higher species richness of butterflies and burnet moths than either type of farm in a landscape with a high proportion of conventional farms. One before-and-after study in the UK found that within 4 years after a mixed farm converted to organic management (along with increasing the proportion of grassland and reducing grazing intensity) the species richness of large moths increased. One replicated, site comparison study in Sweden found that organic mixed farms had a more consistent species richness of butterflies across the farm, but a similar consistency through the summer and between years, compared to conventional farms. POPULATION RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Abundance (12 studies): Seven of 11 replicated, site comparison studies (including five paired studies) in Sweden, the UK, Canada, Switzerland, Germany and Taiwan found that organic arable farms had a greater abundance of butterflies, burnet moths, and all moths, than conventionally managed farms, and that butterfly abundance increased with time since farms had been converted to organic management. However, three of these studies only found this in intensively managed not in more diverse landscapes, and in farms managed organically for <6 years but not 15–23 years. One of these studies also found that on organic and conventionally managed farms within a landscape with a high proportion of organic farms there was higher abundance of butterflies than either type of farm in a landscape with a high proportion of conventional farms. The other four found that organic arable and mixed farms had a similar abundance of macro-moths and butterflies to conventionally managed farms. One before-and-after study in the UK found that within 4 years after a mixed farm converted to organic management (along with increasing the proportion of grassland and reducing grazing intensity) the total abundance of large moths, and the abundance of lunar underwing moths and 5 out of 23 butterfly species, increased, but the abundance of two butterfly species decreased. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3907https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3907Tue, 09 Aug 2022 18:07:43 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Grow native trees within perennial crop plantations One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of growing native trees within perennial crop plantations. This study was in Costa Rica. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Costa Rica found that coffee farms with a native and a non-native tree species growing within them had a higher diversity of butterflies than coffee farms with a single non-native tree species, but a similar diversity to coffee farms with two non-native tree species. The same study found a similar species richness of butterflies on all farms. POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Costa Rica found that coffee farms with a native and a non-native tree species growing within them had a similar abundance of butterflies to coffee farms with one or two non-native tree species. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3920https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3920Thu, 11 Aug 2022 11:25:19 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create beetle banks Four studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of creating raised beetle banks in arable fields. All four were in the UK. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (2 studies): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in the UK found that beetle banks and field margins managed under agri-environment schemes had a higher species richness of micro-moths, and a similar species richness of macro-moths, than conventionally managed field margins. One replicated, paired, site comparison study in the UK found that the species richness of butterflies on beetle banks was lower than along hedgerows. POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Abundance (4 studies): Three replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in the UK found that beetle banks had a similar abundance of caterpillars to field margins, crop fields and a range of other field-edge farmland habitats. One of these studies also found that the abundance of adult butterflies was lower on beetle banks than along hedgerows. One replicated, paired, site comparison study in the UK found that beetle banks and field margins managed under agri-environment schemes had a higher abundance of micro-moths, and a similar abundance of macro-moths, than conventionally managed field margins. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3927https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3927Thu, 11 Aug 2022 17:12:17 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Clear or open patches in forests Fourteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of clearing or opening patches in forests. Five studies were in the UK, two were in each of Finland and Japan one was in each of Sweden, the USA and Canada and the Czech Republic, and one was a review across Europe. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that wider woodland rides (and coppiced woodland) contained more unique species of macro-moth than standard width rides or mature forest. Richness/diversity (6 studies): Three replicated studies (including one controlled study, one site comparison study and one paired sites, controlled study) in the UK, Japan and the Czech Republic found that cleared patches in forests had a greater species richness of butterflies but a lower species richness of moths than unmanaged patches, coppiced woodland or closed canopy forest. One of these studies also found that the species richness of butterflies declined over the first three years after clearing. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and Canada found that larger, but not smaller, cleared patches supported a higher species richness of butterflies than undisturbed forest. The other study found that both wider and standard width rides had a similar species richness of macro-moths to mature forest. One replicated, site comparison study in Japan found that cleared forest patches had a similar species richness of butterflies to semi-natural grassland, although six species were only observed in cleared patches, compared to 15 species only observed in grassland. POPULATION RESPONSE (10 STUDIES) Abundance (10 studies): Five studies (including one replicated, controlled, before-and-after study, one replicated, controlled study and one replicated, site comparison study and two before-and-after studies) in the UK, Finland, Sweden and Japan found that cleared patches in forests, which were also managed with coppicing and grazing, had a higher abundance of butterflies generally, and chequered blue, woodland brown, high brown fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary specifically, than before management, or than unmanaged or coppiced areas. One of these studies also found that the abundance of butterflies declined over the first three years after clearing. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and Canada found that larger, but not smaller, cleared patches had a higher abundance of butterflies than undisturbed forest. The other study found that wider rides had a lower abundance of macro-moths than standard width rides or mature forest. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that patches cleared 2–4 years ago had a greater abundance of heath fritillary than patches cleared 7–11 years ago or patches in their first year after clearance. One study in Finland reported that, in an area with selected clearance of pines, a translocated population of baton blue butterflies increased in number over two years. One review across Europe reported that clearing small patches in forests benefitted 19 out of 67 butterfly species of conservation concern. Survival (1 study): One study in Finland reported that, in an area with selected clearance of pines, a translocated population of baton blue survived for at least two years. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDY) Use (2 studies): One paired sites study in the USA found that orange sulphur butterflies, but not pine whites, flew into areas with selective clearance of pines more often than other areas. One replicated, before-and-after, site comparison study in the UK reported that in cleared patches in forests, which were also managed with cutting, grazing and ride widening, pearl-bordered fritillary and Duke of Burgundy breeding sites increased compared to before management. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3938https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3938Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:56:39 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Coppice woodland Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of coppicing woodland. Eight studies were in the UK and one was in each of France and Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and France found that coppiced woodland of different ages supported different communities of moths and butterflies. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that coppiced woodland contained more unique species of macro-moth than mature forest. Richness/diversity (4 studies): One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK found that coppiced woodland had a greater species richness of butterflies than unmanaged woodland. The other study found that coppiced woodland had a lower species richness of macro-moths than mature forest, and there was no change in species richness with the age of coppice. One of two replicated, site comparison studies in the UK and France found that woodland coppiced two years ago had a greater species richness of butterflies than woodland coppiced >15 years ago. The other study found that the species richness of moths was similar in woodland coppiced 1–4, 5–8 and 12–20 years ago. POPULATION RESPONSE (10 STUDIES) Abundance (9 studies): Two of four site comparison studies (including three replicated studies and one before-and-after study) in the UK found that coppiced woodland (in one case also legally protected) had a higher abundance of butterflies generally, and of heath fritillary specifically, than unmanaged woodland. One study found that pearl-bordered fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary populations were more likely to persist for up to 20 years in coppiced woodland (or woodland with young plantations) than in mature conifer woodland. The fourth study found that the abundance of macro-moths was lower in coppiced woodland than in mature forest, and there was no change in abundance with the age of coppice. Three of four replicated, site comparison studies (including one before-and-after study) in the UK, France and Germany found that the abundance of butterflies generally, heath fritillary specifically, and eastern eggar moth and scarce fritillary caterpillar webs, was higher in woodland coppiced two, two–four, five–seven or 12–15 years ago than in woodland coppiced 5–11 or >15 years ago. The fourth study reported that the abundance of moths was similar in woodland coppiced 1–4, 5–8 and 12–20 years ago. One before-and-after study in the UK reported that after coppicing, along with scrub control, tree felling and grazing, high brown fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary abundance increased. Reproductive success (1 study): One before-and-after study in the UK reported that pearl-bordered fritillaries released into coppiced woodland bred at least once. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3939https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3939Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:56:58 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create young plantations within mature woodland One study evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of creating young plantations within mature woodland. This study was in the UK. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES)   POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that pearl-bordered fritillary and small pearl-bordered fritillary populations were more likely to persist for up to 20 years in woodlands with larger areas of young plantations (or coppicing) than in mature coniferous (both species) or deciduous (pearl-bordered fritillary only) woodland. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3941https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3941Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:57:33 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Employ areas of semi-natural habitat for rough grazing (includes salt marsh, lowland heath, bog, fen) Nine studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of employing areas of semi-natural habitat for rough grazing. Three studies were in Germany, two were in each of the UK and the Netherlands, and one was in each of China and Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (5 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One controlled study in Germany found that after 16–18 years of sheep grazing, lightly grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes had a different community of micro-moths to heavily grazed saltmarsh. Richness/diversity (4 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in the Netherlands and Canada found that calcareous coastal dunes and shrubsteppe managed by cattle or pony grazing for 4–13 or 6–40 years had a similar species richness of butterflies (in one case combined with all pollinators) to unmanaged land or dunes managed by cutting. One controlled study in Germany found that saltmarsh managed by light sheep grazing for 15–18 years had a greater species richness of micro-moths than moderately or heavily grazed marsh, but a similar species richness to ungrazed marsh. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that upland rough grassland managed by livestock grazing had a greater species richness of butterflies than permanently or partially grazed improved grassland. POPULATION RESPONSE (7 STUDIES) Abundance (7 studies): Two of four studies (including two controlled studies, one before-and-after study and two site comparison studies) in the UK, the Netherlands, China and Canada found that fenland and calcareous coastal dunes managed by cattle or pony grazing for two or 4–13 years had a higher abundance of large copper eggs and four of 13 species of butterfly than unmanaged land or dunes managed by cutting. One study found that meadow steppe grazed by cattle, goats or sheep for 1–5 years had a lower abundance of butterflies and moths than ungrazed steppe. The fourth study found that shrubsteppe grazed by cattle for 6–40 years had a similar abundance of pollinators (including butterflies) to ungrazed shrubsteppe. Two controlled studies (including one replicated, paired study) in Germany found that saltmarsh managed by light sheep grazing for 15–18 or 19–22 years had a higher total abundance of micro-moths, and of two out of seven caterpillars, than moderately or heavily grazed, or ungrazed marsh. However, one of these studies also reported that the abundance of four other caterpillars was lower in lightly or heavily grazed marsh than in ungrazed marsh. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that upland rough grassland managed by livestock grazing had a higher abundance of butterflies than permanently or partially grazed improved grassland. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the Netherlands found that calcareous coastal dunes and heathland managed by cattle or pony, or year-round horse and sheep, grazing for five or 4–13 years were more likely to be occupied by brown argus and Alcon large blue than unmanaged land or habitat managed by cutting, grazing and sod cutting, or summer-only cattle and sheep grazing. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3944https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3944Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:58:18 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Change mowing regime on grassland Three studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of changing mowing regimes on grassland. Two studies were in the USA and one was in the UK. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES)   POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (3 studies): One replicated, paired, controlled, before-and-after study in the UK found that mowing coastal grassland in August reduced the abundance of Fisher’s estuarine moth caterpillars, whereas mowing in November or leaving sites unmown did not reduce abundance. One replicated, site comparison study in the USA found that prairies managed by haying had a higher abundance of prairie specialist butterflies, but a lower abundance of generalist and migrant butterflies, than prairies managed by burning, and the abundance of prairie specialists was higher in the first year after haying than in the second year. One replicated, paired, controlled study in the USA found that the abundance of Karner blue butterflies on oak savannas managed by mowing was similar to unmanaged savannas or savannas managed by burning. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)  Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3945https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3945Sat, 13 Aug 2022 14:58:36 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create scrapes and pools We found no studies that evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of creating scrapes and pools. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3951https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3951Sat, 13 Aug 2022 15:22:19 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Cease grazing on grassland to allow early succession Twenty-six studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of ceasing grazing on grassland to allow early succession. Five studies were in the UK, four were in each of Germany and the USA, three were in each of Sweden and Finland, two were in each of Spain and the Czech Republic, and one was in each of Switzerland, Europe and Israel. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (14 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the Czech Republic and Germany found that the community composition of butterflies and moths in grasslands which had been abandoned for >5 years or an unspecified length of time was similar to grasslands managed by grazing or mowing (results not distinguished). One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in Spain found that after grazing and mowing management was abandoned, over 6 years the butterfly community became dominated by generalist species, and species with fewer generations/year. Richness/diversity (12 studies): Six of nine replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study, one paired, site comparison, and seven site comparisons) in Germany, the USA, Finland, Sweden and the Czech Republic found that grasslands which had been not been grazed for >5 years, or an unspecified length of time, in one case with burning, had a similar species richness of butterflies and day-flying, burnet or all moths to grasslands grazed by cattle, horses and cattle or a mix of livestock (in two studies grazing and mowing were not distinguished) or grazed with cattle and burned. One of these studies also found that grasslands abandoned for 5–15 years had a greater species richness than grasslands grazed by sheep. A further two studies found that grasslands which had been abandoned for >5–20 years or many years had a lower species richness of butterflies than grazed grasslands (in one study grazing and mowing were not distinguished). The other study found that butterfly species richness was higher in grasslands where grazing ceased 2–9 years ago than those abandoned >10 years ago or those currently grazed. Three replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study and two site comparison studies) in Switzerland, Germany and the UK found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 4, 5–10 or >10 years had a higher species richness of butterflies and day-flying moths and nocturnal moths than extensively grazed, recently abandoned or commercially grazed grasslands. Two of these studies also found that grassland abandoned for 4 or 5–10 years had a similar species richness of butterflies and day-flying moths and all moths to grassland lightly grazed by cattle or sheep/sheep and cattle. POPULATION RESPONSE (24 STUDIES) Abundance (24 studies): Six of 20 replicated studies (including one paired, controlled, before-and-after study, three randomized controlled studies, and 15 site comparison studies) in Germany, the USA, the UK, Switzerland, Finland, Sweden, Spain, the Czech Republic and Israel found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 1-25 years had a higher abundance of Scotch argus, butterflies and day-flying moths, nocturnal moths, caterpillars, and of small insects including caterpillars, than grasslands grazed by goats, sheep and/or cattle. Two of these studies only found a difference compared to grazing at commercial/intensive, not low, densities. Four of the studies found that grasslands which had been abandoned for two weeks, 5–20 years or an undetermined time had a lower abundance of butterflies and spring webworm caterpillars than grasslands grazed by cattle or a mix of livestock (in two studies grazing and mowing were not distinguished). A further four of the studies found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 5-15 years had a similar abundance of butterflies, burnet moths, day-flying moths and meadow neb moth caterpillars to grasslands grazed by sheep, horses and cattle or a mix of livestock. A further four of the studies found that in grasslands which had been abandoned for >10 years, many years or an unspecified number of years, and in one case with burning, abundance or density was mixed depending on butterfly and moth species compared to grasslands grazed by cattle or unspecified grazers or grazed with cattle and burned. The other study found that butterfly density was higher in grasslands where grazing ceased 2–9 years ago than those abandoned >10 years ago or those currently grazed. Two replicated studies (including one controlled, before-and-after study and one site comparison study) in Spain and Germany found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 1–6 years or an unspecified time period had a higher abundance of woodland and hedgerow butterflies and burnet moths, but a lower abundance of grassland or farmland species, than grasslands managed by grazing and/or mowing (results not distinguished). Two studies also found that the large blue and silver-studded blue went extinct in some abandoned meadows. One replicated, site comparison study in Sweden found that grasslands which were ungrazed for the year had a lower abundance of clouded Apollo butterflies than lightly grazed grasslands, but a higher abundance than heavily grazed grasslands. One review in Europe reported that ceasing grazing on grassland benefitted six out of 67 butterfly species of conservation concern. BEHAVIOUR (3 STUDIES) Use (3 studies): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Germany found that grassland which had been abandoned for >5 years had a similar occurrence of hoary bell moth caterpillars to grassland grazed by sheep. One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that a similar proportion of grasslands which had been abandoned for one year, and grazed grasslands, contained >20 marsh fritillary caterpillar webs. One replicated, site comparison study in Spain found that grizzled skipper and painted lady occurred less frequently, but small pearl-bordered fritillary occurred more frequently, in meadows which had been abandoned for at least 1–2 years than in meadows managed by grazing or mowing (results not distinguished). Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3956https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3956Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:36:11 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Cease mowing on grassland to allow early succession Sixteen studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of ceasing mowing on grassland to allow early succession. Three studies were in Germany, two were in each of the USA, Spain and the Czech Republic, and one was in each of Switzerland, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Japan, Russia and Italy. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (8 STUDIES) Community composition (3 studies): Two replicated, site comparison studies in the Czech Republic and Germany found that the community composition of butterflies and moths in grasslands which had been abandoned for >5 years or an unspecified length of time was similar to grasslands managed by mowing or grazing (results not distinguished). One replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in Spain found that after mowing and grazing was abandoned, over 6 years the butterfly community became dominated by generalist species, and species with fewer generations/year. Richness/diversity (7 studies): Five of seven replicated, site comparison studies in Germany, Poland, Japan, the Czech Republic, Russia and Italy found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 3–13 years, 10–20 years or an unspecified length of time, had a similar species richness of butterflies and burnet moths or all moths to grasslands managed by annual or unspecified frequency mowing, or mown within the last three years (in two studies mowing and grazing were not distinguished). One of these studies also found that grasslands abandoned for more than 50 years had lower species richness than grasslands mowed annually to up to 20 years ago, and another found that grasslands abandoned for 6–13 years had a lower species richness of butterflies than grasslands managed by traditional rotational mowing and burning. One of the studies found that meadows not cut all summer had a higher species richness of butterflies than meadows cut 1–3 times/summer. The other study found that grasslands abandoned for at least 5–20 years had a lower species richness of butterflies than grasslands managed by mowing or grazing (results not distinguished). POPULATION RESPONSE (14 STUDIES) Abundance (14 studies): Four replicated studies (including one randomized, paired, controlled study and three site comparison studies) in Germany, Spain, Slovakia and Hungary found that grasslands which had been abandoned for >1–20 years had a lower abundance of all butterflies or some species of butterfly and caterpillars, than grasslands managed by mowing once or twice per year (in two studies mowing and grazing were not distinguished). Four replicated, site comparison studies (including one paired study) in Germany, the Czech Republic, Russia and Italy found that grasslands which had been abandoned for >3 years, were temporarily abandoned, or were uncut all summer, had a higher abundance of all butterflies, 11 species of butterfly, Scotch argus adults and meadow neb moth caterpillars, than grasslands managed by mowing annually, 1–3 times/summer, or within the last three years. Two replicated studies (including one controlled, before-and-after study and one site comparison study) in Spain and Germany found that grasslands which had been abandoned for 1–6 years or an unspecified time period had a higher abundance of woodland and hedgerow butterflies and burnet moths, but a lower abundance of grassland or farmland species, than grasslands managed by mowing and/or grazing (results not distinguished). One of these studies also found that silver-studded blue went extinct in some abandoned meadows. Three replicated, site comparison studies in the USA and Poland found that in grasslands which had been abandoned for many years or 10 to over 50 years before abundance was mixed depending on butterfly species compared to grasslands managed by grazing or mowing. One replicated, site comparison study in Switzerland found that grasslands which had been abandoned for around six years had a similar abundance of heath fritillary adults and caterpillars to grasslands managed by annual mowing, but that grasslands abandoned for >25 years had a lower abundance of adults and no caterpillars. BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Germany found that grassland which had been abandoned for >5 years had a similar occurrence of hoary bell moth caterpillars to grassland managed by mowing. One replicated, site comparison study in Spain found that grizzled skipper and painted lady occurred less frequently, but small pearl-bordered fritillary occurred more frequently, in meadows which had been abandoned for at least 1–2 years than in meadows managed by mowing or grazing (results not distinguished). Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3957https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3957Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:36:48 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Change type of livestock grazing Four studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of changing the type of livestock grazing. One study was in each of the UK, Sweden, China and France. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (2 studies): Two replicated studies (including one paired, site comparison study and one randomized, controlled study) in Sweden and France found that semi-natural grasslands grazed by cattle or horses had a greater species richness of butterflies and burnet moths than grasslands grazed by sheep. POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One of two replicated, randomized, controlled studies (including one paired study) in China and France found that semi-natural grasslands grazed by cattle had a higher abundance of butterflies and burnet moths than grasslands grazed by sheep. The other study found that meadow steppe grazed by cattle, goats or sheep for 1–5 years had a similar abundance of butterflies and moths. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in the UK found that a similar proportion of fen meadows were occupied by marsh fritillary caterpillars whether they were managed by cattle, horse or sheep grazing. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3963https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3963Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:38:00 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Delay cutting or first grazing date on grasslands to create variation in sward height Seven studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of delaying cutting or first grazing dates on grasslands. Two studies were in Germany and one was in each of the UK, Hungary, Switzerland, Austria and Sweden. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Community composition (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Austria found that the community composition of butterflies and day-flying moths was different between early-mown and late-mown grasslands. Richness/diversity (3 studies): One of three replicated, controlled studies (including two randomized studies and two paired studies) in the UK, Germany and Switzerland found that, in one of four years, grassland plots cut once/year in July had a higher species richness of butterflies than plots cut once/year in May. One study found that, in one of three years, grassland strips mulched once/year in September had a lower species richness of butterflies than strips mown once/year after 10 June. The third study found that meadows mown 1–2 times/year after 15 July had a similar species richness of butterflies and burnet moths to meadows mown twice/year after 15 June. POPULATION RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Abundance (6 studies): Three of four replicated, controlled studies (including three randomized studies and three paired studies) in the UK, Germany, Hungary and Switzerland found that grassland cut once/year in July or September had a greater abundance of butterflies, burnet moths and caterpillars than grassland cut once or twice per year in May or June, but in two of the cases only in one of four or two of three years. The fourth study found that meadows mown once/year in September had a similar abundance of scarce large blue butterflies to meadows mown once/year in May, and abundance remained stable in September-mown meadows but decreased over time in May-mown meadows. One site comparison study in Germany found that a meadow mown once/year after the flight season of tufted marbled skipper had a lower density of eggs than a meadow mown before the flight season. One replicated, site comparison study in Sweden found that meadows where grazing commenced after 15 June (together with a lower stocking density) had a higher abundance of clouded Apollo butterflies than meadows where grazing commenced before 15 June (together with a higher stocking density). BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated, site comparison study in Austria found that short-tailed blue showed a preference for late-mown meadows, but marbled white and meadow brown preferred early-mown meadows. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3967https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3967Sun, 14 Aug 2022 10:38:44 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create uncultivated margins around intensive arable or pasture fields Ten studies evaluated the effects on butterflies and moths of creating uncultivated margins around intensive arable or pasture fields. Six studies were in the UK, two were in Sweden, and one was in each of Finland and Germany. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (9 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (9 studies): Two of five studies (including four replicated, one randomized, one paired, two controlled and two site comparison studies) in Sweden, the UK and Finland, found that uncultivated margins had a lower species richness or diversity of butterflies than margins sown with grasses and non-woody broadleaved plants (forbs) or wildflowers. One other study found that the species richness of butterflies and day-flying moths was higher in permanent uncultivated margins than in sown fallow plots, and the other two found that the species richness of butterflies and moths was similar in uncultivated and sown margins. Three replicated studies (including one randomized, controlled study and two site comparison studies) in the UK and Germany found that uncultivated margins which were not grazed or cut, or were only cut in spring or autumn, had a higher species richness of butterflies than margins which were cut in summer. Two site comparison studies (including one replicated study) in the UK and Germany found that the species richness of butterflies was higher in longer or wider uncultivated margins than in shorter, narrower or conventional width margins. One of two replicated studies (including one controlled study and one site comparison study) in the UK and Finland found that uncultivated margins had a higher species richness of butterflies and day-flying moths than cereal fields, but the other found that the species richness of butterflies was similar between regenerating margins and cropped field edges. One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Sweden found that uncultivated margins had a higher species richness of butterflies and burnet moths if they were located closer to existing grassland. POPULATION RESPONSE (9 STUDIES) Abundance (9 studies): Six of seven studies (including six replicated, two randomized, four controlled and three site comparison studies) in Sweden, the UK and Finland found that the abundance of butterflies and moths, and of adult but not caterpillar meadow brown, was lower in uncultivated margins than in margins sown with grasses, or grasses and non-woody broadleaved plants (forbs) or wildflowers, or a mixture of grasses and wildflowers. However, one of these studies found that uncultivated margins had similar abundance of butterflies to margins sown with grasses or cereal crop. The other study found that the abundance of butterflies and day-flying moths was higher in permanent uncultivated margins than in sown fallow plots. Two of three replicated, site comparison studies (including two randomized studies) in the UK found that uncultivated margins which were not cut, or were only cut in spring and autumn, had a higher abundance of butterflies, and adult but not caterpillar meadow brown, than margins cut in summer. The other study found that margins which were not cut and grazed had a similar abundance of butterflies to margins which were cut and grazed. Two replicated studies (including one controlled study and one site comparison study) in the UK and Finland found that uncultivated margins had a higher abundance of butterflies and day-flying moths than cereal fields or cropped field edges. One site comparison study in the UK found that the abundance of butterflies in wide uncultivated margins was higher than in conventional margins. One replicated, paired, site comparison study in Sweden found that uncultivated margins had a higher abundance of butterflies and burnet moths if they were located closer to existing grassland. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3981https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3981Thu, 18 Aug 2022 11:06:18 +0100
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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