Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Cease/reduce payments to cull mammals One study evaluated the effects of ceasing or reducing payments to cull mammals. This study was in Sweden and Norway. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A before-and-after study in Sweden and Norway found that fewer brown bears were reported killed after the removal of financial hunting incentives. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2349https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2349Tue, 26 May 2020 08:24:48 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create beetle banks on farmland One study evaluated the effects on mammals of creating beetle banks on farmland. This study was in the UK. KEY COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One replicated study in the UK found that beetle banks had higher densities of harvest mouse nests than did field margins. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2393https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2393Thu, 28 May 2020 09:40:32 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Change mowing regime (e.g. timing, frequency, height) We found no studies that evaluated the effects of changing mowing regime (e.g. timing, frequency, height) on mammals. ‘We found no studies'’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this intervention during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore, we have no evidence to indicate whether or not the intervention has any desirable or harmful effects.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2399https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2399Thu, 28 May 2020 10:56:55 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Change type of livestock Two studies evaluated the effect of changing type of livestock on mammals. One study was in the UK and one was in the Netherlands. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One replicated, randomized, paired sites, controlled, before-and-after study in the UK found that sheep and cattle grazing increased field vole abundance relative to sheep-only grazing. One replicated, randomized, paired sites study in the Netherlands found that cattle grazing increased vole abundance relative to horse grazing. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2412https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2412Fri, 29 May 2020 13:34:08 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Burn at specific time of year Two studies evaluated the effects on mammals of burning at a specific time of year. One study was in Australia, and one was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A replicated, randomized, controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that carrying out prescribed burns in autumn did not increase small mammal abundances or biomass relative to burning in summer. Survival (1 study): A randomized, replicated, controlled study in Australia found that in forest burned early in the dry season, northern brown bandicoot survival rate declined less than in forests burned late in the dry season. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2416https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2416Mon, 01 Jun 2020 09:39:13 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Airborne translocation of mammals using parachutes One study evaluated the effects of airborne translocation of mammals using parachutes. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A study in the USA found that at least some North American beavers translocated using parachutes established territories and survived over one year after release. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2466https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2466Wed, 03 Jun 2020 09:31:50 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed mammals in captivity Three studies evaluated the effects of breeding mammals in captivity. One study was across Europe, one was in the USA and one was global. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (1 study): A review of captive-breeding programmes across the world found that the majority of 118 captive-bred mammal populations increased. Reproductive success (2 studies): A review of a captive breeding programme across Europe found that the number of European otters born in captivity tended to increase over 15 years. A study in the USA found that wild-caught Allegheny woodrats bred in captivity. Survival (1 study): A review of a captive breeding programme across Europe found that the number of European otters born in captivity that survived tended to increase over 15 years. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2471https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2471Wed, 03 Jun 2020 16:51:03 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Clone rare species One study evaluated the effects of cloning rare species. This study was in Iran. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): A controlled study in Iran found that immature eggs of domestic sheep have potential to be used for cloning of Esfahan mouflon. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2474https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2474Thu, 04 Jun 2020 09:34:41 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Captive rear in large enclosures prior to release Four studies evaluated the effects of captive rearing mammals in large enclosures prior to release. Two studies were in the USA, one was in Mexico and one was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Reproductive success (1 study): A study in Mexico found that peninsular pronghorn taken from the wild and kept in a large enclosure bred successfully and the population increased, providing stock suitable for reintroductions. Survival (2 studies): A replicated, controlled study in USA found that black-footed ferrets reared in outdoor pens had higher post-release survival rates than did ferrets raised indoors. A controlled study in Australia found that Tasmanian devils reared free-range in large enclosures did not have greater post-release survival rates than animals from intensively managed captive-rearing facilities. Condition (1 study): A controlled study in Australia found that Tasmanian devils reared free-range in large enclosures did not gain more body weight post-release compared to animals from intensively managed captive-rearing facilities. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Behaviour change (1 study): A controlled study in USA found that captive-bred black-footed ferrets raised in large enclosures dispersed shorter distances post-release than did ferrets raised in small enclosures. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2507https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2507Thu, 04 Jun 2020 16:36:49 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Control non-native/problematic plants to restore habitat We found no studies that evaluated the effects on mammals of controlling invasive or problematic plants to restore habitat. 'We found no studies' means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this intervention during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore, we have no evidence to indicate whether or not the intervention has any desirable or harmful effects.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2530https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2530Mon, 08 Jun 2020 16:20:23 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Control non-native prey species to reduce populations and impacts of non-native predators We found no studies that evaluated the effects on mammals of controlling non-native prey species to reduce populations and impacts of non-native predators. 'We found no studies' means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this intervention during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore, we have no evidence to indicate whether or not the intervention has any desirable or harmful effects.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2532https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2532Mon, 08 Jun 2020 16:23:17 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Apply water to vegetation to increase food availability during drought One study evaluated the effects on mammals of applying water to vegetation to increase food availability during drought. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): A controlled, before-and-after study in the USA found that watering scrub during drought increased its use by adult Sonoran pronghorns for feeding. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2555https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2555Tue, 09 Jun 2020 10:47:58 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Build fences around protected areas Two studies evaluated the effects on mammals of building fences around protected areas. One study was in Kenya and one was in Mozambique. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Richness/diversity (1 study): A before-and-after study in Kenya found that after a fence was built around a protected area, mammal species richness initially increased in both study sites, but subsequently declined at one of the sites. POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): A paired sites study in Mozambique found that inside a fenced sanctuary there were more mammal scats than outside the sanctuary. A before-and-after study in Kenya found that after a fence was built around a protected area, mammal abundance initially increased in both study sites, but it subsequently declined at one of the sites. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2561https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2561Tue, 09 Jun 2020 12:38:38 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Create or maintain corridors between habitat patches Four studies evaluated the effects on mammals of creating or maintaining corridors between habitat patches. One study was in each of Canada, the USA, Norway and the Czech Republic. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (4 STUDIES) Use (4 studies): Four studies (three replicated) in Canada, the USA, Norway and the Czech Republic found that corridors between habitat patches were used by small mammals. Additionally, North American deermice moved further through corridors with increased corridor width and connectivity and root voles moved further in corridors of intermediate width. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2576https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2576Wed, 10 Jun 2020 11:20:07 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Apply fertilizer to vegetation to increase food availability Two studies evaluated the effects on mammals of applying fertilizer to vegetation to increase food availability. One study was in Canada and one was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES) Use (2 studies): Two replicated, controlled studies, in Canada and the USA, found that applying fertilizer increased the use of vegetation by pronghorns and Rocky Mountain elk. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2577https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2577Wed, 10 Jun 2020 11:48:19 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Control ticks/fleas/lice in wild mammal populations Two studies evaluated the effects of controlling ticks, fleas or lice in wild mammal populations. Both studies were in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Condition (2 studies): A replicated, paired sites, controlled study in the USA found that a grain-bait insecticide product did not consistently reduce flea burdens on Utah prairie dogs. A controlled study the USA found that treating wolves with ivermectin cleared them of infestations of biting dog lice. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2589https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2589Wed, 10 Jun 2020 17:24:33 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Ban private ownership of hunted mammals One study evaluated the effects of banning private ownership of hunted mammals. This study was in Sweden. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): A before-and-after study in Sweden found that fewer brown bears were reported killed after the banning of private ownership of hunted bears. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2602https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2602Thu, 11 Jun 2020 15:34:18 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Commercially breed for the mammal production trade We found no studies that evaluated the effects of commercially breeding mammals for trade on wild populations of those species. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this intervention during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore, we have no evidence to indicate whether or not the intervention has any desirable or harmful effects.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2622https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2622Fri, 12 Jun 2020 10:48:37 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Ban exports of hunting trophies One study evaluated the effects of banning exports of hunting trophies on wild mammals. This study was in Cameroon. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A before-and-after study in Cameroon found similar hippopotamus abundances before and after a ban on exporting hippopotamus hunting trophies. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2625https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2625Fri, 12 Jun 2020 10:54:25 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Close roads in defined seasons One study evaluated the effects on mammals of closing roads in defined seasons. This study was in the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): A site comparison study in the USA found that closing roads to traffic during the hunting season increased use of those areas by mule deer. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2626https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2626Fri, 12 Jun 2020 11:07:53 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Control firewood collection in remnant native forest and woodland We found no studies that evaluated the effects on mammals of controlling firewood collection in remnant native forest and woodland. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this intervention during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore, we have no evidence to indicate whether or not the intervention has any desirable or harmful effects.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2632https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2632Fri, 12 Jun 2020 12:46:51 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Allow forest to regenerate naturally following logging One study evaluated the effects on mammals of allowing forest to regenerate naturally following logging. This study was in Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): A replicated, site comparison study in Canada found that, natural forest regeneration increased moose numbers relative to more intensive management in the short- to medium-term but not in the longer term. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2634https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2634Fri, 12 Jun 2020 12:49:45 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Coppice trees We found no studies that evaluated the effects of coppicing trees on mammals. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this intervention during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore, we have no evidence to indicate whether or not the intervention has any desirable or harmful effects.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2635https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2635Fri, 12 Jun 2020 12:51:07 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Clear or open patches in forests Four studies evaluated the effects on mammals of clearing or opening patches in forests. Two studies were in the USA, one was in Bolivia and one was in Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Abundance (4 studies): Two of four replicated studies (including three controlled studies and a site comparison study), in Bolivia, the USA and Canada, found that creating gaps or open patches within forests did not increase small mammal abundance relative to uncut forest. One study found that it did increase small mammal abundance and one found increased abundance for one of four small mammal species. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2641https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2641Fri, 12 Jun 2020 15:46:42 +0100Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Apply fertilizer to trees Three studies evaluated the effects on mammals of applying fertilizer to trees. All three studies were in Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (3 STUDIES) Use (3 studies): One of three replicated studies (including one controlled study and two site comparison studies), in Canada, found that thinned forest stands to which fertilizer was applied were used more by snowshoe hares in winter but not in summer over the short-term. The other studies found that forest stands to which fertilizer was applied were not more used by snowshoe hares in the longer term or by mule deer or moose. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2649https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F2649Sat, 13 Jun 2020 18:06:25 +0100
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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