Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Avoid carrying out construction work during sensitive periods We found no studies that evaluated the effects of avoiding carrying out construction work during sensitive periods on reptile populations. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3482https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3482Fri, 03 Dec 2021 12:08:55 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter road surfaces One study evaluated the effects of altering road surfaces on reptile populations. This study was in Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One replicated study in Canada found that paved roads were not used more by Blanding’s turtles than unpaved roads. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3504https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3504Mon, 06 Dec 2021 18:00:05 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Add lights to fishing gear Five studies evaluated the effects of adding lights to fishing gear on reptile populations. Two studies were in the Baja California peninsula (Mexico) and one was in each of Sechura Bay (Peru), the Atlantic and North Pacific and the Adriatic Sea. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Survival (1 study): One randomized, controlled, paired study in the Adriatic Sea found that no loggerhead turtles were caught and died in in gillnets with UV lights whereas some did in nets without lights. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (5 STUDIES) Unwanted catch (5 studies): Four controlled studies (including three replicated and two paired studies) in the Baja California peninsula, Sechura Bay and the Adriatic Sea found that gillnets with LED lights, light sticks or UV lights caught fewer green turtles and loggerhead turtles than nets without lights. One replicated study in the Atlantic and North Pacific found mixed effects of increasing the number of light sticks on longlines on the chance of catching loggerhead and leatherback turtles. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3554https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3554Wed, 08 Dec 2021 13:59:36 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Add chemicals or minerals to sediment to remove or neutralize pollutants We found no studies that evaluated the effects on reptile populations of adding chemicals or minerals to sediment to remove or neutralize pollutants. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3562https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3562Wed, 08 Dec 2021 14:50:43 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Augment ponds with ground water to reduce acidification We found no studies that evaluated the effects on reptile populations of augmenting ponds with ground water to reduce acidification. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3591https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3591Wed, 08 Dec 2021 16:20:49 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Avoid illuminating key habitats We found no studies that evaluated the effects on reptile populations of avoiding illuminating key habitats. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3598https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3598Wed, 08 Dec 2021 16:29:16 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter water flow rates One study evaluated the effects of altering water flow rates on reptile populations. This study was in Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Abundance (1 study): One before-and-after study in Australia found that releasing a large flow of water into a wetland system had mixed effects on relative abundance of eastern long-necked turtles and the number of turtles caught. Condition (1 study): One before-and-after study in Australia found that after releasing a large flow of water into a wetland system, body condition of eastern long-necked turtles improved. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3666https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3666Fri, 10 Dec 2021 11:17:59 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Armour shorelines to prevent erosion We found no studies that evaluated the effects of armouring shorelines to prevent erosion on reptile populations. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3670https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3670Fri, 10 Dec 2021 11:37:19 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Carry out surveillance of reptiles for early treatment/action to prevent spread of disease We found no studies that evaluated the effects on reptile populations of carrying out surveillance of reptiles for early treatment/action to prevent spread of disease. ‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3702https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3702Fri, 10 Dec 2021 19:02:11 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Add woody debris to landscapes Six studies evaluated the effects of adding woody debris to landscapes on reptile populations. Three studies were in Australia, two were in the USA and one was in Indonesia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Richness/diversity (5 studies): Four of five studies (including four replicated, randomized, controlled studies) in the USA, Indonesia and Australia found that areas with added woody debris had similar richness and diversity or richness or of reptiles, rare reptiles and snakes and lizards compared to areas with no added debris. The other study found that areas with added woody debris had higher reptile species richness than areas with no added debris. POPULATION RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Abundance (6 studies): Two of six replicated studies (including four randomized, controlled studies) in Australia, Indonesia and the USA found that areas with added woody debris had a higher abundance of reptiles than areas with no added debris. Three studies found that areas with woody debris had a similar abundance of reptiles and snakes and lizards compared to areas with no added debris. The other study found that pastures with added timber had lower abundance of rare reptile species compared to pastures without timber, but that in pastures with added timber, reptile abundance was higher after 15 months than after 12 months. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3718https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3718Mon, 13 Dec 2021 15:33:28 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Sea turtles Two studies evaluated the effects of breeding sea turtles in captivity. One study was in the Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Surinam and Ascension Island and one was in Japan. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Reproductive success (2 studies): One replicated, controlled study in the Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Surinam and Ascension Island found that artificially incubated green turtle eggs that were laid in captivity had lower hatchling success than those laid in the wild and artificially incubated. One study in Japan reported that hatching success of eggs produced by one female black turtle in captivity was 12%. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3745https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3745Tue, 14 Dec 2021 11:14:04 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles Twenty-eight studies evaluated the effects of breeding tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles in captivity. Twelve studies were in the USA, four were in the Seychelles, two were in Madagascar, two were in an unknown location and one was in each of the Galápagos, Germany, Austria, Jersey, Italy, India, China and Myanmar. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (28 STUDIES) Abundance (5 studies): Four studies (including one replicated study) in Madagascar, the Seychelles and the USA reported that captive breeding programmes produced 255 ploughshare tortoises, 40 and 140 giant tortoises, 75 juvenile radiated tortoises and 94 Madagascar big-headed turtle hatchlings. One study also reported that the captive population grew each year. One replicated study in Myanmar reported that the number of Burmese star tortoise hatchlings produced in captivity increased from 168 to over 2,000 over eight years. Reproductive success (24 studies): Eighteen studies (including one replicated, controlled, before-and-after study) in the USA, the Galápagos, Germany, Austria, the Seychelles, Italy, India, China and an unknown location reported that females produced 0–25 clutches of 1–26 eggs, 65–78 eggs each/year or a total of 10–170 eggs. Three of these studies reported hatching success of 52–100%, four reported hatching success of 23–71%, three reported hatching success of 0–66%, 0–81% or 0–100% and six reported hatching success of 0–43% or 0–3 hatchings/clutch. One other study from the Seychelles reported that 0–75% of eggs from one of two mud turtle species hatched successfully. One of the studies also found that three of five eggs produced by a captive-bred tortoise hatched successfully. Two studies in Jersey and the Seychelles reported that only 3 Malagasy Flat-tailed tortoise eggs and 3–18 mud turtle eggs hatched successfully over 11–12 years. One study in Madagascar reported that most Madagascar big-headed turtle eggs laid in captivity were infertile. One study in the USA reported that hatching success of 2nd generation captive desert tortoises was 20–83%, whereas success for 3rd generation tortoises was 0–43%. One study in the USA found that hatching success for captive Bourret’s box turtle eggs was higher when incubated at 26–27°C compared to 28–29°C. Survival (7 studies): Three studies (including one replicated study) in the USA, Austria and an unknown location reported that 2–4 captive-bred tortoises or turtles survived for at least 28 weeks to two years. One replicated study in Italy reported that all captive-bred spider tortoises survived to adult size. Two studies in the USA and Jersey reported that 25–30% of captive-bred tortoises died within 12–18 months. One study in the Seychelles reported that 70% of captive-bred mud turtles died during hatching BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Offspring sex ratio (1 study): One study in the USA reported that a captive breeding programme of radiated tortoises produced 67 females and eight males. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3746https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3746Tue, 14 Dec 2021 11:18:05 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Snakes – Boas and pythons Twelve studies evaluated the effects of breeding boas and pythons in captivity. Five studies were in the USA, two were in the UK and one was in each of Jersey, Australia, India an unknown location and one was a global review. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (12 STUDIES) Reproductive success (11 studies): Five studies in Jersey, the USA and the UK reported that 1–4 female boas produced litters of 3–34 young, though 2–10 young/litter or 38% of young overall were stillborn. One replicated study in the USA reported that a captive breeding programme for ball pythons produced over 5,000 eggs from nearly 800 clutches, with an average hatching success of 81%. Five studies in an unknown location, the USA, Australia, India and the UK reported that female pythons produced clutches of 4–29 eggs, with hatching success of 40–100% or 0–100%. Survival (5 studies): Five studies in the USA, Australia, India and the UK reported that 2–8 captive-bred python hatchlings survived at least two years or 5–8 months, but seven captive-bred emerald tree boas died within three months of birth. Condition (1 study): One global review reported on one study on Jamaica boas that found that captive breeding had a negative effect on genetic variation compared to wild populations. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3747https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3747Tue, 14 Dec 2021 12:34:08 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Snakes – Colubrids Eighteen studies evaluated the effects of breeding colubrid snakes in captivity. Ten studies were in the USA, two were the UK, two were in unknown locations and one was in each of Costa Rica, Taiwan, India and Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (18 STUDIES) Reproductive success (18 studies): Seventeen studies in the USA, Costa Rica, the UK, Taiwan, Australia, India and unknown locations reported that 1–2 female colubrid snakes produced 1–12 clutches of 3–16 eggs. Ten of those studies reported hatching success of 67–100%, two reported hatching success of 25% and two reported that hatching success varied from 0–75%. Two of the studies reported that at least 18–20 eggs hatched successfully. One study also found that captive-bred offspring produced two clutches of 3–4 eggs and all hatched successfully. One study in the USA reported that three female San Francisco garter snakes produced broods of 9–35 young. Survival (5 studies): Five studies in the USA and the UK found that 2–20 captive-bred snakes survived for at least 1–3 months and 2–3 years in captivity, and that from six broods of 9–35 captive-bred San Francisco garter snakes, six young died within four months of birth. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3748https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3748Tue, 14 Dec 2021 13:03:41 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Snakes – Elapids Four studies evaluated the effects of breeding elapid snakes in captivity. Three studies were in Australia and one was in India. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (4 STUDIES) Reproductive success (4 studies): Three studies in Australia and India reported that 1–4 females elapid snakes produced clutches of eggs in captivity, with 26–93% hatching successfully. One study in Australia reported that two generations of death adders produced litters of 17–25 young in captivity, though 20 were still born. Survival (2 studies): Two studies in Australia and India reported that two western brown hatchlings survived 2–3 years and 87% of king cobra hatchlings survived one year in captivity. Condition (1 study): One study in Australia reported that eight of 15 captive-bred western brown snake hatchlings lacked one or both eyes. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY) Offspring sex ratio (1 study): One study in Australia reported that 55% of captive-bred Australian death adders were female. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3750https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3750Tue, 14 Dec 2021 13:27:14 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Snakes – Vipers Thirteen studies evaluated the effects of breeding vipers in captivity. Nine studies were in the USA, three were in unknown locations and one was in Columbia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (13 STUDIES) Reproductive success (13 studies): Thirteen studies in the USA, Columbia and unknown locations reported that 1–4 female vipers, including three captive-bred offsping, produced litters of 1–18 live young or clutches of 1–26 eggs with hatching success of 63–81%. One study also reported that none of three Chocoan bushmaster eggs that were removed and incubated artificially fully developed. Survival (5 studies): Three studies in the USA and one in an unknown location reported that of 10–49 captive-bred young snakes, 1–9 died soon after birth or within three months. One study also reported that one pair of adult adders died shortly after arriving in captivity. One study in an unknown location reported that four captive-bred Radde’s vipers survived for at least eight months Condition (1 study): One study in an unknown location reported that two of 10 captive-bred Nikolsky's adders had some physical deformities. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (2 STUDIES) Offspring sex ratio (2 studies): Two studies in the USA and an unknown location reported that the sex ratio of captive-bred lower California rattlesnakes was 2:12 and Russell's vipers was 8:6 females to males. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3753https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3753Tue, 14 Dec 2021 13:32:11 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Lizards Twenty-three studies evaluated the effects of breeding lizards in captivity. Ten studies were in the USA, three were in Australia, two were in the UK and one was in each of Switzerland, an unknown location, the Arabian Peninsula, Mexico, Italy, Spain, Bahamas and Jamaica and the USA. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (23 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One replicated study in Spain reported that a captive-breeding programme for large psammodromus lizards produced 365 juveniles for release over two years. One replicated study in Australia reported that captive populations of Lister’s geckos and Christmas Island blue-tailed skinks at two facilities grew or remained stable over 4–5 years. Reproductive success (22 studies): Eighteen studies (including seven replicated studies) in the USA, Switzerland, an unknown location, the Arabian Peninsula, Mexico, Italy, Spain the UK and Australia reported that captive lizards produced one or more clutches of 2–21 eggs, 3–12 eggs/year or gave birth to 21 live young. Eleven of the studies reported hatching success of 45–96%. Three of the studies reported hatching success of 0–40%, 0–43% or 0–100%. One of the studies reported hatching success of <10%. One of the studies also found that hatching success for Australian painted dragon eggs was similar across all incubation temperatures used, but higher for eggs laid earlier in the season. One of two studies (including one replicated study) in Jamaica and the USA and the Bahamas reported that captive breeding programmes lasting 19 and 24 years produced 73 and five Jamaican iguana hatchlings respectively. The other study reported that over 2.5 years, captive San Salvador rock iguanas produced only a single hatchling. One controlled study in the USA found that captive-reared western fence lizard females housed individually or in pairs produced more clutches with fewer infertile eggs compared to females kept in groups of four or eight. One replicated, before-and-after study in the USA found that curious skinks kept in smaller breeding groups and provided nutrient rich food produced more clutches of eggs than skinks that were kept in larger groups and given regular food. Survival (9 studies): Seven studies (including four replicated studies) in an unknown location, Mexico, Italy, the USA and the UK reported that 4–23 captive-bred lizards, or some individuals, survived for six weeks or at least six months to three years, or that individuals of three species survived to reach adult size. Two studies in the USA reported that one of three and eight of 10 captive-bred lizards died within one day or 18 months. Condition (1 study): One controlled study in the USA reported that giant horned lizard eggs incubated at 26.5°C produced larger hatchlings compared to those incubated at 28°C. BEHAVIOUR (1 STUDY) Use (1 study): One study in the USA reported that captive female Yuman fringe-toed lizards selected an 8:1 sand:water mixture when laying eggs. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3756https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3756Tue, 14 Dec 2021 14:27:51 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Crocodilians Six studies evaluated the effects of breeding crocodilians in captivity. Two studies were in the USA, one was in each of Venezuela, Brazil and China and one was a global review. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (6 STUDIES) Abundance (1 studies): One study in China reported that a captive population of Chinese alligators increased from 10,000 to 15,000 individuals over a 10-year period. Reproductive success (4 studies): Four studies in the USA, Venezuela and Brazil reported that 1–4 captive females crocodilians, including four captive-born broad-snouted caiman, produced clutches of 17–49 eggs, with hatching successes of 35–86% or 6%. Survival (1 studies): One study in Brazil reported that 4% of broad-snouted caiman hatchlings died within one week Condition (1 studies): One global review reported on one study on Chinese alligators that found that captive breeding had a positive effect on genetic variation compared to wild populations. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3757https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3757Tue, 14 Dec 2021 15:32:22 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Breed reptiles in captivity: Tuatara One study evaluated the effects of breeding tuatara in captivity. This study was in New Zealand. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated study in New Zealand reported that hatching success of eggs laid in captivity by tuatara was around 50%. The study also found that the first clutches were laid 2–8 years after tuatara were brought into captivity. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3758https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3758Tue, 14 Dec 2021 15:42:24 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratio: Sea turtles One study evaluated the effects of altering incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratios on sea turtles. This study was in Canada. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (1 STUDY) Reproductive success (1 study): One replicated study in Canada reported that hatching success of two clutches of artificially incubated green turtle eggs was 8% and 62%. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (1 STUDY): Offspring sex ratio (1 study): One replicated study in Canada found that incubating green turtle eggs at higher temperatures resulted in more females hatchlings. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3761https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3761Tue, 14 Dec 2021 16:09:09 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratio: Tortoises, terrapins, side-necked & softshell turtles Eight studies evaluated the effects of altering incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratios on tortoise, terrapin, side-necked and softshell turtle populations. Four studies were in the USA, two were in Columbia and one was in each of Brazil and the Galápagos. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (5 STUDIES) Reproductive success (5 studies): Four studies (including two replicated studies) in the USA, Colombia and the Galápagos found that hatching success of alligator snapping turtle, Magdalena river turtle, western pond turtle and Española giant tortoise eggs varied across the range of temperatures tested. One controlled study in Brazil found that Amazon River turtle nests covered with black plastic sheeting had lower hatching success than uncovered nests. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (8 STUDIES): Offspring sex ratio (8 studies): Seven studies (including three replicated, randomized studies) in the USA, Colombia and the Galápagos found that hatchling sex ratio of turtles and tortoises was affected by incubation temperature, and that warmer temperatures resulted in more female hatchlings. One controlled study in Brazil found that Amazon River turtle nests covered with black plastic sheeting produced more female hatchlings than uncovered nests. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3762https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3762Tue, 14 Dec 2021 16:12:00 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratio: Snakes & lizards Four studies evaluated the effects of altering incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratios on snake and lizard populations. Two studies were in each of the USA and China. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Reproductive success (3 studies): Two replicated studies (including one randomized study) in China and the USA found that toad-headed agama hatching success was lowest at the highest incubation temperature tested and southern alligator lizard hatching success was highest at intermediate temperatures.One randomized study in the USA found that survival of garter snake offspring was highest when females were maintained at intermediate temperatures. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (4 STUDIES): Offspring sex ratio (4 studies): Three replicated studies (including two randomized studies) in China and the USA found that hatchling sex ratio of stripe-tailed ratsnakes, toad-headed agamas and southern alligator lizard was not affected by incubation temperature. One randomized study in the USA found that sex ratio of live garter snake offspring was not affected by the temperature females were maintained at. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3763https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3763Tue, 14 Dec 2021 16:36:15 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratio: Crocodilians Three studies evaluated the effects of altering incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratios on crocodilian populations. Two studies were in Argentina and one was in China. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (2 STUDIES) Reproductive success (2 studies): Two replicated, randomized study in Argentina found that hatching success of broad-snouted caiman eggs was similar across all temperatures tested. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (3 STUDIES): Offspring sex ratio (3 studies): Two replicated, randomized studies in Argentina found that hatchling sex ratio of broad-snouted caimans was affected by temperature, and that warmer temperatures resulted in fewer females. One replicated study in China found that exposing Chinese alligator eggs to short periods of high temperatures during incubation resulted in fewer female hatchlings. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3764https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3764Tue, 14 Dec 2021 16:44:08 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Alter incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratio: Tuatara Two studies evaluated the effects of altering incubation temperatures to achieve optimal/desired sex ratios on tuatara populations. Both studies were in New Zealand. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES) OTHER (2 STUDIES): Offspring sex ratio (2 studies): Two replicated studies (including one controlled study) in New Zealand found that hatchling sex ratio of tuatara was affected by temperature, and that warmer temperatures resulted in more males. Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3765https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3765Tue, 14 Dec 2021 17:00:12 +0000Collected Evidence: Collected Evidence: Bring threatened wild populations into captivity Three studies evaluated the effects on reptile populations of bringing threatened wild populations into captivity. One study was in each of New Zealand, Myanmar and Australia. COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES) POPULATION RESPONSE (3 STUDIES) Abundance (2 studies): One of two replicated studies in Myanmar and Australia found that after bringing Burmese start tortoises into captivity the populations increased from 175 individuals to over 7,000 in 12 years. The other study found that Lister’s gecko and blue-tailed skink populations remained stable or grew over 4–5 years in captivity. Reproductive success (2 studies): Two replicated studies in New Zealand and Myanmar found that after bringing tuatara and Burmese start tortoises into captivity, 44% of tuatara eggs hatched successfully in 16 years, and the number of hatchlings produced by Burmese start tortoises increased from 168 to over 2,000 in eight years Survival (1 studies): One replicated study in New Zealand found that varying proportions of wild tuatara brought into captivity survived for 16 years. BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)Collected Evidencehttps%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3791https%3A%2F%2Fconservationevidence.com%2Factions%2F3791Wed, 15 Dec 2021 16:40:22 +0000
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What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

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